Presentation on theme: "Birth of Kingdoms. Objectives Describe how William the Conqueror and Henry II strengthened English royal power. Analyze the traditions of government that."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Describe how William the Conqueror and Henry II strengthened English royal power. Analyze the traditions of government that developed under King John and later English monarchs. Explain how strong monarchs unified France.
Power Struggle Form the framework for Nation-States –Modern day countries –Power shifts from about 1000-1300 ChurchMonarchsNobles
History of England Angles and Saxons Alfred the Great united tribes(1 st King) King Edward dies, with no heir, competing claims between Harold and William William the Conqueror and Battle of Hastings (1066).William the Conqueror and Battle of Hastings (1066). New Norman rulers and diffusion that took place.
Developing a Unified Legal System 1154 – Henry II –Creates English common law Legal system based on custom and court rulings Applied to all of England –Creates jury system Group of men sworn to speak the truth
Henry II Clashed with the church (right to try clergy) Archbishop of Canterbury – Thomas Becket “Who will rid me of this meddlesome priest?”
Richard I (1189-1199) “ Couer De Lion” Spoke little English Only 7 months in England Emptied the treasury with many wars, ransom Died in France leaving his brother, John, as King
Fight for Control King John I constantly at war –1215 signs Magna Carta. Lords look to limit Kings’ power. –Limited the power of the monarch
The Magna Carta Rule of law Powers and privileges of the king are clearly defined and limited Charter provides for enforcement of restrictions placed on the king Fairness of the laws and their execution Equal justice under the law Recognition of customs, traditions, and established rights Punishment in proportion to the crime Commitment to "due process of law" No trial without evidence/testimony to support accusations Reliance on local courts and magistrates Trials held in a timely manner Trials open to the public Trial by a jury of one's peers Right to property What do these rights of Englishmen remind you of?
France The Capetian dynasty: Hugh Capet 1 st Capetian King in 987 They controlled very little land Most of the country dominated by powerful feudal princes Slowly established a solid power base and eventually imposed their will on French Nobles The Kingdom of France at the time of Hugh Capet. French royal domain in blue.
Phillip II Augustus Phillip II Augustus King at 25 Goal: To weaken power of English Kings in France Took Normandy back from John in 1204 New administration for France Used middle class “bailiffs” instead of nobles to collect taxes and administer the kings law Absolute Monarchy is the result Estates General eventually created but is too weak to cut into kings power (no power of the purse)
French Kings Capetians consolidate power around Paris Phillip II Augustus increases power of French by taking back land from English. –Crushed the Albigensians to retake southern France
Louis IX Beloved King Persecuted heretics –Those who held beliefs contrary to church teachings, Jewish population –Led French knights in two crusades against the Muslims
Church Power Pope Innocent III – claimed supremacy over all rulers. “[The Pope] stands between God and man, lower than God but higher than men, who judges and is judged by no one” Showed power over King John of England and Philip II of France. Extended Papal States
Beginnings of Democratic Ideas INFORMALLY began after Magna Carta: King Edward calls “model parliament” 1295 for first time –Two houses, commons and lords. –Today’s impact. United States?Today’s impact. –French Estates General set in 1302 after struggle with the Church. 3 “Estates” to balance power of church