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 Nobles and the Church had as much power as monarchs (in some cases they were more powerful)  Nobles and Church had their own courts, collected their.

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Presentation on theme: " Nobles and the Church had as much power as monarchs (in some cases they were more powerful)  Nobles and Church had their own courts, collected their."— Presentation transcript:


2  Nobles and the Church had as much power as monarchs (in some cases they were more powerful)  Nobles and Church had their own courts, collected their own taxes, and fielded their own armies  During High Middle Ages-1000 to 1300- the balance of power started to change  Monarchs used different ways to centralize power › they expanded the royal domain and set up systems of royal justice that weakened feudal and Church courts › organized government bureaucracies, developed tax systems, and built standing armies  Monarchs also strengthened ties with people of the middle class- these people supported royal rulers that can impose the peace and unity that were needed for trade

3  In early Middle Ages, many groups-Angles, Saxons, and Vikings—invaded and settled in England. Tensions arose in this society but rulers kept their kingdoms united. Until 1066, the Anglo-Saxon king Edward died without an heir. Council of nobles chose Edward’s bro-in-law Harold to rule but William (Duke of Normandy-Vikings) also claimed to the throne. He was related to Edward and claimed that he had promised him the throne.  William raised an army and won backing of the pope, he then sailed across the English Channel to England  At battle of Hastings William and his Norman Knights triumphed over Harold, and he became King Of England on Christmas Day 1066 › He was called William the Conqueror

4  In 1154 a well educated king, Henry II took the throne › He broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law › He sent out traveling justices to enforce these royal laws  the decisions of the royal courts became the foundation of English Common Law- a legal system based on custom rulings  Henry II also developed an early jury system › When traveling justices visited an area local officials collected a jury- group of men sworn to speak the truth › These juries determined which cases should be brought to trial and were the ancestors of today’s grand jury

5  Son of Henry II, King John was a clever, cruel, and untrustworthy ruler › He faced three powerful enemies: King Philip II of France, Pope Innocent III, and his own English Nobles › In 1205 John suffered when he lost a war with Philip II and had to give up lands in Anjou & Normandy › Then he battled with Innocent III over selecting a new bishop of Canterbury…When he rejected, the pope excommunicated him and to save himself and the his crown John had to accept England as a fief of the papacy and pay a yearly fee to Rome

6  King John angered his nobles with oppressive taxes and other abuses of power  In 1215 a group of rebellious barons cornered John and made him sign the Magna Carta › This document had two very important ideas 1) asserted that the nobles had certain rights—these rights eventually extended to all English citizens 2) Magna Carta made it clear that the monarch must obey the law  The barons included the legal rights of townspeople and the Church › 1) Due Process Law: a clause protecting freemen from arrest, imprisonment, and other legal actions, except “by legal judgment of his peers or by the law of the land” › 2) Habeas Corpus: the principle that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime  King also agreed not to raise new taxes without consulting his Great Council of lords & Clergy  By keeping the Magna Carta English rulers called on the Great Council for advice which later formed into Parliament– a two-house body- House of Lords & House of Commons  Eventually Parliament gained the right to approve any new taxes, which monarchs must meet demands before voting for taxes, and in this way it could limit the power of the monarch

7  The Capetian Kings--- Nobles elected Hugh Capet to fill the French throne › Hugh and his heirs increased royal power by passing it from father to son › The Capetian dynasty lasted for 300 years and made the kingdom stable › Hugh added to his lands by playing rival nobles against each other › Capetians built a bureaucracy government that collected taxes and imposed royal law over the king’s lands  Philip Augustus Extends French Power--- in 1179 Philip II became king of France › Instead of appointing nobles to fill gov’t positions Philip paid middle-class officials who would owe their loyalty to him, he granted charters to many new towns and introduced a national new tax  Before his death he was known as the most powerful ruler in Europe  Louis IX, King and Saint--- In 1226 Louis IX became King of France › He persecuted those who held beliefs to Church teachings, and Jews › He led French knights in two Crusades (wars against Muslims) within 30 years of his death Church declared him as a saint › Improved government  Sent out roving officials to check on local administrations  Expanded royal courts, outlawed private wars  To ensure justice he would hear cases himself

8  Clashing With the Pope--- Louis’ grandson Philip IV extended royal power › To raise cash he tried to collect new taxes from clergy which led to a clash with Pope Boniface VIII › Pope forbade Philip to tax the clergy without papal consent › Philip threatened any clergy who wouldn’t pay and sent out troops to seize Boniface but he escaped (he soon died) › Throughout the years new popes were elected which led to rivals between popes (each claimed to be the true leader of the Church)  Forming the Estates General--- Philip gained French support by setting up the Estates General › This body had representatives from all three estates: Clergy, nobles, and townspeople › Later French kings consulted the Estates General and it never gained power or served as a balance to royal power

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