Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Welcome to Anatomy and Physiology Dr. Rothschild
2 Introduction To Human Anatomy Adapted fromDr. Manah Chandra Changmai
3 Anatomy : is the study of structures or body parts and their relationships to one another.“anatome = up (ana) + cutting (tome) “
4 Levels of Structural Organization •Biochemical (atoms, molecules) •Cellular •Tissue •Organ •Organ system •Organism
5 Characteristics of life Movement DigestionResponsiveness Absorption (passage across membranes)Growth Circulation (substances in fluids)Assimilation Reproduction (organisms, cells)Respiration (cellular) Excretion (metabolic waste)
6 Requirements of Organisms WATER: metabolism, transport, temperature controlFOOD: energy, materials for needed substancesOXYGEN: produce energyHEAT: regulate metabolismPRESSURE: atmospheric-breathinghydrostatic-circulate blood
8 Body organization1. Body cavities – hollow spaces within the human body that containinternal organs.a) The dorsal cavity: located toward the back of the body, is divided into the cranial cavity (which holds the brain) and vertebral or spinal cavity (which holds the spinal cord).
9 b) The ventral cavity: located toward the front of the body, is divided into abdominopelvic cavity and thoracic cavity by thediaphragm.The abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided into abdominal cavity(which holds liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidney,small, and large intestines) andThe pelvic cavity (which holds theurinary bladder and reproductive organs).The thoracic cavity is subdivided into the pleural cavity (whichholds the lungs) and pericardial cavity (which holds the heart).
11 Eleven organ systems1. Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, digestive,respiratory, Circulatory, lymphatic, urinary, and reproductive systems .2. The reproductive system is mainly involved in transmitting geneticinformation From one generation to another, while the remaining 10organ systems are important in maintaining homeostasis.
14 Body Sections • Sagittal plane – divides the body into left and right • Midsagittal (median) plane– divides the body intoequal halves at midline.• Frontal (coronal) plane –divides the body intoanterior and posterior• Transverse (horizontal)plane – divides the bodyinto superior and inferior
16 Anatomical directional terminology • Superior : means the part is above another or closer to head (cranial ).• Inferior: means the part is below another or towards the feet (caudal).
17 Anatomical directional terminology • Anterior: means towards the front (the eyes are anterior to the brain) -[ventral].• Posterior: means toward the back (the pharynx is posterior to the oralcavity) - [dorsal].
18 Anatomical directional terminology • Medial : relates to the imaginary midline dividing the body into equalright and left halves (the nose is medial to the eyes).• Lateral: means to words the side with respect to the imaginary midline(the ears are lateral to the eyes).
20 Anatomical directional terminology Ipsilateral: the same side (the spleen and descending colon areipsilateral ).Contralateral : Refers to the opposite side (the spleen and gallbladderare contralateral ).
21 Anatomical directional terminology • Proximal : is used to describe a part that is closer to the trunk of thebody or closer to another specified point of reference than anotherpart (the elbow is proximal to the wrist).• Distal: it means that a particular body part is farther from the trunk orfarther from another specified point of reference than another part(fingers are distal to the wrist).
22 Anatomical directional terminology • Superficial: means situated near the surface. Peripheral also meansoutward or near the surface.• Deep: is used to describe parts that are more internal .
23 Anatomical directional terminology •Prone–the body lying face downward; stomach lying•Supine–lying on the back; face upward position of the body•Dorsal–relating to the back; being or located near, on, or toward the back, posterior part, or upper surface of•Ventral–relating to the belly or abdomen, on or toward the front, anterior part of•Volar–relating to palm of the hand or sole of the foot•Plantar–relating to the sole or undersurface of the foot
24 Regional Terms• Axial part : includes the head, neck, andtrunk.• Appendicular part : Includes the limbswhich are attached to the body's axis.
25 Body membranes • Body membranes – tissue linings of body cavities and coverings of internalorgans.• parietal membrane –lining of body cavity (e.g.parietal pleural membranelines the pleural cavity )• visceral membrane –covering of internal organ(e.g. visceral pleuralmembrane lines the surfaceof the lungs).
31 Common Terms • abdominal = region between thorax and pelvis. • antebrachial = the forearm.• antecubital = the front of elbow.• axillary = the armpit.• brachial = the upper arm.• celiac = the abdomen.• cephalic = the head.• cervical = the neck.• costal = the ribs.• cubital = the elbow.• femoral = the thigh.• gluteal = the buttock.• lumbar = the lower back.