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The Language of Anatomy

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Presentation on theme: "The Language of Anatomy"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Language of Anatomy

2 Anatomical Position Person stands erect Feet flat on floor
Arms at sides Palms, eyes & face facing forward

3 Terms referring to Direction:
Superior Inferior Anterior Posterior Ventral Dorsal Cranial Caudal Proximal Distal Medial Lateral Superficial Deep

4 Superior vs Inferior Used to identify vertical levels of position
When a structure is above another it is referred to as superior When a structure is below another, it is inferior Example 1: the trachea is superior to the heart Example 2: the intestines are inferior to the diaphragm

5 Anterior vs Posterior Used to identify front and back positioning
Anterior means the front part or in front of. Posterior means the back part or in back of. Example 1: the heart is anterior to the spine Example 2: the spine is posterior to the heart Ventral is the same as Anterior Dorsal is the same as Posterior These terms used for nonhumans

6 Cranial vs Caudal These directional terms are typically used in describing nonhumans: Cranial means toward the head Caudal means toward the tail

7 Proximal vs Distal Describe with respect to point of attachment
Proximal means closer to the point of attachment Distal means further from the point of attachment Example 1: the wrist is distal to the elbow Example 2: the wrist is proximal to the hand

8 Medial vs Lateral Describe surface structure with respect to midline. Medial means closer to midline Lateral means further from the midline

9 Superficial vs Deep Describe body organs according to closeness to the body surface. Superficial means closer to the body surface Deep means further from the body surface Example 1: Lungs are deep to the rib cage Example 2: Skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles

10 Anatomical Planes and Sections
Planes are imaginary flat surfaces passing through the body sections are anatomical views if body is cut on a plane Sagittal plane divides body into right and left halves median plane creates equal halves Frontal (coronal) plane divides body into front & back portions Transverse (horizontal) plane divides the body into upper & lower portions

11 Body Sections Sagittal section: A section resulting from a cut made parallel to the sagittal plane. Coronal Section: A section resulting from a cut made parallel to the coronal(frontal plane). Cross-section: A section resulting from a cut made through the transverse plane

12 Typical Sectional Views of the Body
Sagittal Frontal Transverse

13 Regional terms are used to identify specific areas on the body.

14 REGIONAL TERMS(anterior view)
Oral: pertaining to mouth Orbital: pertaining to the bony eye socket Buccal: pertaining to the cheek Cervical: pertaining to the neck Acromial: pertaining to the top of the shoulder Thoracic: pertaining to the chest Axillary: pertaining to the armpit Mammary: pertaining to the breast

15 REGIONAL TERMS(anterior view)
Brachial: pertaining to the arm(region of upper extremity between the shoulder and the elbow) Antebrachial: pertaining to the forearm(region of lower extremity between elbow and wrist) Antecubital: pertaining to front of the elbow Carpal: pertaining to the wrist Abdominal: pertaining to the anterior trunk region between the thorax and the pelvis Inguinal: pertaining the area where the thigh meets the body trunk

16 REGIONAL TERMS(anterior view)
Femoral: pertaining to the thigh Pubic: pertaining to the region of the pubis(pubic bone) Patellar: pertaining to the anterior knee region Tarsal: pertaining to the ankle Pedal: pertaining to the foot Digital: pertaining to the fingers/toes

17 Posterior View

18 REGIONAL TERMS(posterior view)
Cephalic: pertaining to the head(as a complete unit) Occipital: pertaining to the lower posterior surface of the head Deltoid: pertaining to the curve of the shoulder formed by the large deltoid muscle Scapular: pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area Olecranal: pertaining to the back of the elbow

19 REGIONAL TERMS(posterior view)
Lumbar: pertaining to the loins(area between ribs & hips) Gluteal: pertaining to the buttocks Popliteal: pertaining to the hollow of the back of the knee Sural: pertaining to the back of the leg Calcaneal: pertaining to the heel Plantar: pertaining to the sole of the foot

20 Abdominal Subdivisions used for anatomical studies

21 Abdominopelvic Quadrants used by clinicians to locate pain, tumors, or other abnormalities

22 Body Cavities All of the internal organs are contained in body cavities that are completely or partially lined with smooth membranes.

23 Dorsal Body Cavity Dorsal Cavity: large cavity that is nearest to dorsal surface; includes cranial & spinal cavity Cranial Cavity: the hollow portion of the skull that contains the brain Spinal Cavity: the long tubular area within the vertebrae, which contains the spinal cord

24 Ventral Cavity: the cavity that’s nearest to the ventral surface
Ventral Cavity: the cavity that’s nearest to the ventral surface. Superior & inferior portions separated by the diaphragm. THORACIC CAVITY: lies superior to the diaphragm Pericardial cavity: in the thoracic cavity; contains the heart

25 ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY: lies inferior to the diaphragm
Ventral Cavity continued… ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY: lies inferior to the diaphragm Abdominal cavity: contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and intestines Pelvic cavity: contains the bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum & male/female reproductive organs

26 Body Cavities continued…
Nasal Cavity: entire chamber inside the nose; nostrils are the opening to this cavity Oral Cavity: the chamber is bordered by the cheeks, hard/soft palates of the mouth, and the tongue


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