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Body Planes and Cavities

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1 Body Planes and Cavities
Principles of Health Science

2 Standard Anatomical Position

3 Body Planes Imaginary lines drawn through body to separate the body into section. Directional terms create planes Three main body planes: Transverse, Midsagittal (median), frontal (coronal) plane

4 Transverse Plane Horizontal plane
Divides the body into a top half and bottom half Directional terms associated with transverse: Superior – body parts above Inferior – body parts below

5 Midsagittal (median) Plane
Divides the body into a right and left side Directional terms associated with midsagittal: Medial – body parts close to midline Lateral – body parts away from the midline

6 Frontal or Coronal Plane
Divides the body into front section and back section Directional terms associated with frontal: Ventral or Anterior – body parts in front of plane or in front of the body Dorsal or Posterior – body parts in back of plane or in back of body

7 Directional Terms

8 Directional Terms Extremities in relation to trunk (point of reference) Proximal – body part closest to point of reference Distal – body part farther or most distant from the point of reference Example: Relationship between wrist, elbow and shoulder, with shoulder being the point of reference. Wrist is distal to elbow Elbow is proximal to shoulder

9 Body Cavities Spaces within body that contain vital organs
Two main body cavities: Dorsal Cavity and Ventral Cavity

10 Dorsal Cavity One long, continuous cavity located on back of body
Divided into two sections: Cranial Cavity – contains the brain Spinal Cavity – contains the spinal cord

11 Ventral Cavity Larger than dorsal cavity, separated into two cavities by the diaphragm. Thoracic Cavity: located in the chest and contains heart, lungs and large blood vessels Abdominal Cavity: divided into upper and lower part Upper Abdominal Cavity – contains stomach, small intestine, most of large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen

12 Ventral Cavity, cont. Lower Abdominal Cavity or pelvic cavity – contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and last part of the intestines

13 Additional Cavities Three small cavities Orbital cavity: contains eyes
Nasal cavity: contains nose structures Buccal cavity: contains mouth

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