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A Frame of Reference for Anatomical Study

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1 A Frame of Reference for Anatomical Study
Anatomy and Physiology Mr. Knowles Chapter 1 Liberty Senior High School

2 Anatomical Terms of Direction and Position
Created for communicating the direction and relative positions of body structures. Most have Latin or Greek roots. Some are eponyms (commemorative names).

3 Anatomical Landmarks Based on figures in the anatomical position.
Maybe lying down supine (face up) or prone (face down). Example: brachium (arm); brachialis muscle; brachial artery.

4 Figure 1.7 Anatomical Landmarks

5 Figure 1.7b

6 Anatomical Regions Describe general area of interest or injury. Example: The Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic Region

7 Figure 1.8 Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions

8 Figure 1.8b, c

9 Some Anatomical Directions (Table 1.1)
Superior and Inferior Superior: toward the head end; above Inferior: away from the head end; below

10 Some Anatomical Directions (Table 1.1)
Anterior and Posterior Anterior: toward the front of the body; in front of Posterior: toward the back of the body; behind

11 Some Anatomical Directions (Table 1.1)
Dorsal and Ventral Dorsal: toward the back of the body; behind Ventral: toward the belly side

12 Some Anatomical Directions (Table 1.1)
Proximal and Distal Proximal: closer to the point of attachment Distal: farther from the point of attachment

13 Some Anatomical Directions (Table 1.1)
Medial and Lateral Medial: toward the midline of the body Lateral: away from the midline of the body

14 Some Anatomical Directions (Table 1.1)
Superficial and Deep Superficial- at, near or closer to the body surface. Deep- farther from the body surface.

15 Figure 1.9 Directional References

16 Sectional Anatomy Describe three-dimensional structures.
Sectional Planes: Transverse Planes- divide the body into superior/inferior sections. Frontal Planes - divide the body into anterior and posterior sections. Sagittal Planes-divide the body into left and right sections. Exactly equal halves- Midsagittal Section

17 Figure 1.10 Planes of Section

18 Transverse View

19 Transverse Sections of Entire Human Body

20 Frontal (Coronal) Plane

21 Frontal Sections of Entire Human Body

22 Sagittal Plane

23 Sagittal Sections of Entire Human Body

24 The Results of Sectional Anatomy!


26 Sagittal Plane - Organs Labeled
This animation (596K; or 350K Quicktime version) travels from the right side to the left, and back again (and again..). You can see the entire head and neck, the thorax or chest, and part of the abdomen.                  Head and Neck Brain: The area occupied by the brain is shown in yellow. Thorax Lungs: Follow the path of the right and left lungs (in blue). Heart: Note the location of the heart (in red) with respect to the lungs. The heart resides primarily on the left side of the body. Abdomen Liver: Follow the green outline of the liver. Notice that most of the organ resides on the right side of the body. A thin region extends to the left side, running beneath the diaphragm. Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract: The stomach, small intesine and colon are indiscriminantly labeled in purple. Note how the loops of bowel travel across the abdomen. Kidneys: Notice the more lateral positioning of the kidneys. Be certain to watch for both kidneys - one on the left side, and one on the right side.

27 Body Cavities Body cavities are internal chambers holding vital organs
Cavities protect vital organs Cavities allow organs to change in shape and size Two body cavities Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity Ventral body cavity includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

28 Figure 1.12a Body Cavities Figure 1.12a, b

29 Thoracic Cavities The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs.
It is subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities and the mediastinum (pericardial cavity) Each pleural cavity contains one lung lined by the visceral and parietal pleura (serous membranes) The mediastinum (pericardial cavity) contains the pericardium, another serous membrane that surrounds the heart

30 Abdominopelvic Cavity
The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneum (serous membrane) The abdominal cavity extends from the diaphragm to the superior margins of the pelvis liver, stomach, spleen and most of the large intestine

31 Abdominopelvic Cavity
The pelvic cavity is bordered by the pelvis, with a floor of muscle reproductive organs, urinary bladder and the final portion of the large intestine

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