2 Learning Expectations 1.1 Distinguish between anatomy andphysiology.1.2 Investigate the structure of the majorbody systems and relate the functions.1.3 Investigate the major body cavities andthe subdivisions of each cavity.1.4 Apply correct anatomical terminology ofbody parts and regions.
3 Overview ANATOMY – study of the parts of the body PHYSIOLOGY – function of the bodyANATOMICAL POSITION – standing erect with feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.HOMEOSTASIS-pp. 2, 11
4 Many Levels of Structural Organization Chemical level- Atoms combine to form moleculesCellular level- reflect their particular functions in the bodyTissue level- Consist of groups of similar cells (epithelial, connective, muscular, and neural)Organ level- two or more tissue types making an organ with complex functionOrgan system level- group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose (example: cardiovascular system with heart and blood vessels)
5 Organ Systems Overview ORGAN SYSTEM – a group of organs which act together to perform a specific, related functionIntegumentarySkeletalMuscularNervousEndocrineCardiovascularLymphaticDigestiveRespiratoryUrinaryReproductive
8 Analyze anatomical position. Activity: Assume the anatomical position.comment on how that position differs from the “usual” standing positionexplain why knowing this position is important to precisely identify anatomical terms and physiological processes.
9 Anatomic Terminology Position and Directional Terms ANTERIOR or VENTRAL – front or in front ofPOSTERIOR or DORSAL – back or in back ofCRANIAL – refers to the head of the bodyCAUDAL – means tail endSUPERIOR – upper or above somethingINFERIOR – lower or below somethingMEDIAL – toward the middleLATERAL – toward the side of the bodyPROXIMAL – toward the point of attachment to the body or the trunk of the bodyDISTAL – away from the point of attachment to the bodySUPERFICIAL (EXTERNAL) – near the surface or outside the bodyDEEP (INTERNAL) – inside the body
10 Body Planes and Sections PLANES – imaginary anatomical dividing planesSECTION – cut made through the body in the direction of a certain plane1. SAGITTAL PLANE – divides the body into right and left parts2. CORONAL (FRONTAL) PLANE – vertical cut atright angles to saggital plane, divides the bodyinto anterior and posterior portions3. TRANSVERSE PLANE – cross-section, ahorizontal cut that divides the body into upperand lower parts
11 Three Major Planes When a section or cut is made through the body wall or an organ, it is madealong an imaginary line called a plane.What kind of section would have to be made to cut the brain into right and left parts?What kind of section would have to be made to divide the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts?What is a cut made along a horizontal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts?
12 Cavities of the BodyDORSAL CAVITY – contains brain and spinal cord – the brain is in the CRANIAL CAVITY and the spinal cord is in the SPINAL CAVITY.ANTERIOR or VENTRAL CAVITY contains the THORACIC and ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITIESThe thoracic cavity contains the lungs and heartABDOMINAL CAVITY contains stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder and pancreasPELVIC CAVITY contains urinary bladder and reproductive organs
13 Alert! Study the “Body Cavity” quiz on Wednesday