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Ancient Rome Republic to Empire

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Rome Republic to Empire"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Rome Republic to Empire
From a Republic to an Empire 509 B.C. – 476 A.D.

2 The Republic’s Military
The Roman army was divided into smaller groups called legions Roman soldiers were called legionaries Because of the strength of the military, Rome began to expand

3 The Punic Wars Rome vs. Carthage
City-state on Northern coast of Africa Dominated western Mediterranean trade The Punic Wars Rome vs. Carthage

4 Punic Wars Cause: Both Rome and Carthage wanted to control the Mediterranean Sea

5 Our Sea Results of Punic Wars Mare Nostrum Rome wins the wars
Rome now controls the Mediterranean Sea

6 The Rise of Julius Caesar
Caesar was elected consul in 60 B.C. Caesar became part of the First Triumvirate (government run by three people) They shared power Caesar seen as a military hero after conquering many territories for Rome “Veni, vidi, vici…”

7 The Rise of Julius Caesar
Results As Caesar became more powerful the Triumvirate falls apart Senate demands that Caesar return to Rome w/out his army Civil war ensues Caesar hailed as dictator for life in 45 B.C.

8 Many feared Caesar would assume title of king & set up a dynasty
Caesar Assassinated! Mourners lay flowers at the site of his demise Many feared Caesar would assume title of king & set up a dynasty 60 members of Senate plot to kill him The Ides of March (15th) stabbed 23x’s

9 Who Will Rule? 4. After Caesar’s death, there was a power struggle between two men: Mark Antony and Octavian

10 Who Will Rule? 5. Civil war breaks out between Antony and Octavian
6. Antony becomes involved with Cleopatra in Egypt 7. Eventually both Cleopatra and Antony commit suicide 8. Octavian becomes the main ruler of Rome and decides to end the republic.

11 Roman Empire Established
2 The 500-year old republic comes to an end. Octavian changes his name to Augustus and becomes Rome’s first emperor in 31 BC

12 2 Roman Empire Augustus laid the foundation for a stable government that would function well for 200 years. This period was called the Pax Romana. Pax Romana: 200 years of Roman peace and prosperity

13 The Empire Expands Empire expands after Augustus rules
A.D. 117 reached biggest size Now controls: Egypt, Carthage, Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine

14 How did the empire maintain control and communication?
The Empire Expands How did the empire maintain control and communication?

15 Diocletian Two Reformers
Divided the empire into two parts to make it easier to govern

16 Two Reformers Constantine
Granted toleration to Christians, which led to the rapid growth of Christianity Built a new capital at Constantinople, making the eastern part of the empire the center of power

17 Divided Roman Empire

18 Roman Achievements Architecture Developed rounded dome
Improved the Greek column and arch

19 Colosseum & Circus Maximus
Colosseum 80 A.D. Held gladiator & animal fights Held 50,000 people Circus Maximus Held chariot races Held 250,000 Bread and Circus Policy

20 Colosseum & Circus Maximus

21 Roman Achievements Technology Created aqueducts for piped water
Built an extensive road system Over 50,000 miles

22 The Roman Road System

23 Engineering Wonders… Roman Engineering Accomplishments Roman Roads

24 Family was the center of Roman society.

25 Roman Society Men: Absolute power in all areas of society, especially the home! Women: Able to own property; not shut away like Greek women

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