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The Roman Republic.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roman Republic."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roman Republic

2 Early Romans Latin- Early settlers of Rome Etruscans- Northern Italy
Eventually take control of Rome and build it into a great city. Build it on 7 hills for protection. 509 BCE- Romans drive Etruscans out.

3 Roman Government The Forum- The central public square used for government meetings. Republic- a government without a king Not a true democracy because of elected representatives by the people. Citizenship was only granted only to free-born make citizens

4 Roman government Patricians- wealthy landowners that controlled the republic. Consuls- two individuals that directed the daily affairs of government and led the army. One-year terms

5 The Senate 300 member council of patricians that made laws and served Rome. Most powerful part of The Republic.

6 The Plebeians The common people (common farmers, artisans, merchants)
Had no say in governement Allowed to take part in the assembly, but had less power than the Senate. Twelve Tables- 451 BCE Plebeians have Roman laws written. Gives common people some protection against unfair patrician decisions.

7 The Roman Army Superior due to its discipline and organization.
Used a tight battle formation used by Greek foot soldiers. Opponents used mob warfare. Legion- basic army unit.

8 Roman Alliances How did Rome maintain its alliances with former enemies? Granted Roman citizenship to allies. Allowed allies to keep local government. Gave protection and maintained order in Italy.

9 The Punic Wars 264-202 BCE- Series of wars between Rome and Carthage
Carthage- North African city founded by Phoenicians. First Punic War Rome- superior army Carthage- superior navy Rome gains Sicily- makes it a province (territory outside of Italy) Second Punic War Hannibal invades Italy.

10 Hannibal Carthaginian general
Invades Italy from the north via the Alps with elephants. Battle of Cannae Hannibal pulls back from Rome. Romans believe he is retreating and follow. Hannibal surrounds and defeats. Scipio- Roman general attacks Carthage Hannibal tries to return home. Defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama.

11 Destruction of Carthage
Romans burn Carthage because it represented Hannibal. Survivors sold into slavery. Becomes a Roman province along with Greece and the Mediterranean.

12 Spartacus 73 BCE Proclaims war on Rome in attempt to free the slaves.
2 years of successful revolts Eventually killed along with 6000 followers.

13 The rise of dictators Dictator- one person w/ absolute power
Military loyalty came from loyalty to Rome. Gaius Marius Ensures loyalty of troops by promising loot from conquered lands. Lucius Sulla Rival to Marius Bloody wars over power Defeats Marius and becomes dictator of Rome.

14 First triumvirate 60 BCE- Three army generals unite to rule Rome.
Pompey Crassus Julius Caesar Caesar becomes consul and commands the Roman legions in Gaul. Conquers Gaul (France) and England. Pompey gets support from Senate. Orders Caesar to return home w/out the army. Caesar invades Rome w/ army and defeats Pompey. Becomes a “hero of the empire.” This is an oligarchy – rule by a few

15 Julius Caesar Reforms Rome March 15, 44 BCE- Caesar assassinated
Reorganized government with him as dictator. Lowered taxes. Makes governors responsible to him. Grants citizenship to conquered peoples. March 15, 44 BCE- Caesar assassinated Stabbed in the Senate “Beware the Ides of March.”

16 Second triumvirate Mark Antony Lepidus Octavian
Created by Mark Antony. Falls in love w/ Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Octavian crushes the combined fleet of Antony and Cleopatra.

17 Octavian 31 BCE- creates the Roman Empire
Allows Senate to keep some power, but he would retain sole rulership. Changes name to Augustus “honored and majestic” Takes title of “Caesar” “first citizen”

18 The Roman Empire Augustus gains control of the following: Military
Takes complete control of Gives veterans bonuses of land. Provinces Supervised all the governors. Loyalty to Rome Granted citizenship to more conquered peoples of Europe.

19 Pax Romana “The Roman Peace”- 27-180 AD Julio-Claudian dynasty
Period of peace and prosperity. Julio-Claudian dynasty No real line of succession to the throne. First four emperors after Augustus that were either related to him or his wife. Not as good as Augustus.

20 The Height of the Roman Empire
Empire stretched from Asia Minor to the Danube and Rhine Rivers to Great Britain. Roman governors Enforced Roman law and settled provincial disputes.

21 The Height of the Roman Empire
Roman Prosperity New roads, drained swamps, irrigation systems for the deserts. Roman Citizenship By 212 AD, virtually all free people in the Empire became Roman citizens.

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