2 Early Romans Latin- Early settlers of Rome Etruscans- Northern Italy Eventually take control of Rome and build it into a great city.Build it on 7 hills for protection.509 BCE- Romans drive Etruscans out.
3 Roman GovernmentThe Forum- The central public square used for government meetings.Republic- a government without a kingNot a true democracy because of elected representatives by the people.Citizenship was only granted only to free-born make citizens
4 Roman governmentPatricians- wealthy landowners that controlled the republic.Consuls- two individuals that directed the daily affairs of government and led the army.One-year terms
5 The Senate300 member council of patricians that made laws and served Rome.Most powerful partof The Republic.
6 The Plebeians The common people (common farmers, artisans, merchants) Had no say in governementAllowed to take part in the assembly, but had less power than the Senate.Twelve Tables- 451 BCEPlebeians have Roman laws written.Gives common people some protection against unfair patrician decisions.
7 The Roman Army Superior due to its discipline and organization. Used a tight battle formation used by Greek foot soldiers.Opponents used mob warfare.Legion- basic army unit.
8 Roman AlliancesHow did Rome maintain its alliances with former enemies?Granted Roman citizenship to allies.Allowed allies to keep local government.Gave protection and maintained order in Italy.
9 The Punic Wars 264-202 BCE- Series of wars between Rome and Carthage Carthage- North African city founded by Phoenicians.First Punic WarRome- superior armyCarthage- superior navyRome gains Sicily- makes it a province (territory outside of Italy)Second Punic WarHannibal invades Italy.
10 Hannibal Carthaginian general Invades Italy from the north via the Alps with elephants.Battle of CannaeHannibal pulls back from Rome.Romans believe he is retreating and follow.Hannibal surrounds and defeats.Scipio- Roman general attacks CarthageHannibal tries to return home.Defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama.
11 Destruction of Carthage Romans burn Carthage because it represented Hannibal.Survivors sold into slavery.Becomes a Roman province along with Greece and the Mediterranean.
12 Spartacus 73 BCE Proclaims war on Rome in attempt to free the slaves. 2 years of successful revoltsEventually killed along with 6000 followers.
13 The rise of dictators Dictator- one person w/ absolute power Military loyalty came from loyalty to Rome.Gaius MariusEnsures loyalty of troops by promising loot from conquered lands.Lucius SullaRival to MariusBloody wars over powerDefeats Marius and becomes dictator of Rome.
14 First triumvirate 60 BCE- Three army generals unite to rule Rome. PompeyCrassusJulius CaesarCaesar becomes consul and commands the Roman legions in Gaul.Conquers Gaul (France) and England.Pompey gets support from Senate.Orders Caesar to return home w/out the army.Caesar invades Rome w/ army and defeats Pompey.Becomes a “hero of the empire.”This is an oligarchy – rule by a few
15 Julius Caesar Reforms Rome March 15, 44 BCE- Caesar assassinated Reorganized government with him as dictator.Lowered taxes.Makes governors responsible to him.Grants citizenship to conquered peoples.March 15, 44 BCE- Caesar assassinatedStabbed in the Senate “Beware the Ides of March.”
16 Second triumvirate Mark Antony Lepidus Octavian Created by Mark Antony.Falls in love w/ Cleopatra, queen of Egypt.Octavian crushes the combined fleet of Antony and Cleopatra.
17 Octavian 31 BCE- creates the Roman Empire Allows Senate to keep some power, but he would retain sole rulership.Changes name to Augustus“honored and majestic”Takes title of “Caesar”“first citizen”
18 The Roman Empire Augustus gains control of the following: Military Takes complete control ofGives veterans bonuses of land.ProvincesSupervised all the governors.Loyalty to RomeGranted citizenship to more conquered peoples of Europe.
19 Pax Romana “The Roman Peace”- 27-180 AD Julio-Claudian dynasty Period of peace and prosperity.Julio-Claudian dynastyNo real line of succession to the throne.First four emperors after Augustus that were either related to him or his wife.Not as good as Augustus.
20 The Height of the Roman Empire Empire stretched from Asia Minor to the Danube and Rhine Rivers to Great Britain.Roman governorsEnforced Roman law and settled provincial disputes.
21 The Height of the Roman Empire Roman ProsperityNew roads, drained swamps, irrigation systems for the deserts.Roman CitizenshipBy 212 AD, virtually all free people in the Empire became Roman citizens.