Presentation on theme: "12/8 Focus: 12/8 Focus: – Rome grew rapidly, and growth brought political, economic, and social changes. Some leaders attempted reforms, but the republican."— Presentation transcript:
12/8 Focus: 12/8 Focus: – Rome grew rapidly, and growth brought political, economic, and social changes. Some leaders attempted reforms, but the republican government was unable to deal with the problems caused by these changes. Important Terms: Important Terms: – Empire Do Now: Do Now: – What was one effect of the Roman victory in the Punic Wars?
Ancient Rome Roman Expansion From Republic to Empire
Roman Expansion Rome defeats Carthage in the Punic Wars – Controls the western Mediterranean conquered Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Anatolia – controls the Eastern Mediterranean
Roman Expansion Rome gave many of the people it conquered citizenship and made them allies – Made it easier to control large empire – increased the size of the army The Emblem of the Roman Army SPQR= the Senate and People of Rome
The Roman Military All landowning men 17- 46 had to serve in the army during wartime Roman army organized into legions – Legions divided into centuries led by Centurions – Highly disciplined and a well trained soldiers
The Roman Military Frequent warfare made the army stronger War increased the wealth of Rome rewarded successful generals by giving them power in the government
The highest honor for a general was a "triumph," a grand parade through the streets of Rome. The victorious general, dressed up to look like the supreme god Jupiter, rode in a chariot. Behind him marched the soldiers, carrying the many valuables taken from the enemy and leading the prisoners of war.
Expansion Creates Problems Conquest brings tremendous wealth to Rome – leads to corruption; gov’t leaders become greedy
Expansion Creates Problems The gap between wealthy and poor grows – Soldiers (legionnaires) return to Rome and live in poverty – Senate favors the wealthy and ignores the poor – Tiberius And Gaius Gracchus attempt to reform Rome but are killed by mobs at the urging of senators
Expansion Creates Problems Soldiers in the army began to have loyalty to a particular general rather than Rome – Rome changes requirement of landownership to join army – Lead to increased numbers of poor people in the army hoping to gain riches from spoils of war – Generals begin to develop their own “private” armies which they can use to increase their own power – Generals begin to fight each other for control of government
Closure Why would it be helpful to Rome to give rights to people that it conquered? Identify one problem created by Roman expansion.
12/10 Focus: 12/10 Focus: – Governmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and creation of new form of government. Important Terms Important Terms – Triumvirate, Pax Romana Do Now: Do Now: – Why did Rome offer many of the people that it conquered some of the benefits of being Roman citizenship?
The First Triumvirate Three men take over the Republic in 60 BC – Julius Caesar General who had conquered Gaul – Pompey General conquered Syria and Asia Minor – Crassus Wealthy Roman citizen
Civil War Crassus’s dies Caesar and Pompey fight for control of Rome Caesar wins civil war and is made dictator for life by the Senate
Julius Caesar Reforms Rome which makes him popular with the public – Improves court system – Gives property to the poor and veterans
Julius Caesar Senators feared his growing power – A group of senators murder Caesar on March 15, 44 BC Stabbed 23 times E Tu Brute?
Octavian (Augustus Caesar) Adopted son of Julius Caesar – Shared power with Marc Anthony after Caesar’s murder Becomes the sole ruler of Rome in 31 BC – defeats Marc Anthony at the Battle of Actium – Senate gives him the title “Augustus” Meant “respected one”; first citizen. Becomes the first Emperor of Rome – Had absolute power – Marks the end of the Roman Republic
Augustus Caesar Restores peace to Rome – Start of the Pax Romana The Roman Peace Expands the Roman Empire into Western Europe – Spain, northern Gaul, Hungary, Croatia
Augustus Caesar Massive public works projects – Bridges, roads, aqueducts Public entertainment – Coliseum, gladiators, and games – Bread and Circuses (fed and entertained people) Had support of the people – Was worshipped as a god by the people Dies in 41 AD
Pax Romana “The Roman Peace” 200 years of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire Characteristics of the Pax Romana – Stable government – Strong legal system – Widespread Trade due to the extensive road networks in the Empire – Peace