2 Roman UpheavalRome was now the sole power in the Mediterranean and very prosperous.But as the territory grew, so did the gap between the rich and poor.
3 Roman Civil WarThis strife and upheaval between the rich and poor would lead to civil war – a conflict between two groups within the same country.Many poor soldiers in the military became discontent and loyal to their generals rather than to Rome itself.It would now become possible for a military leader supported by his troops to take over by force.
4 The First TriumvirateThe First Triumvirate was an unofficial (and at first secret) pact to control RomeFrom 60 to 53 BCEMembers:PompeyMarcus CrassusJulius Caesar
5 Julius CaesarJulius Caesar was a great general and an important leader in ancient Rome. He suggested new laws, most of which were approved by the Senate. He reorganized the army. He improved the way the provinces were governed.
6 Dictator for LifeThe Senate disliked many of Caesar’s reforms and feared his popularity and powerIdes of MarchMarch 15, 44 BCE –Senators conspired to assassinate CaesarCaesar was stabbed to death (at least 23 times) on the floor of the Senate house
7 After CaesarThree men ruled the Roman Empire – Octavian, Antony & LepidusKnown as the Second TriumvirateOctavian & Antony began to dominateEven though the empire was big, it was too small for two leadersAntony soon commited suicide after a defeat and Octavian ruled
8 Octavian TriumphsHaving defeated Marc Antony, Octavian becomes the unchallenged ruler of Rome.While he keeps many similar aspects of a republic, (such as the Senate), Octavian is granted supreme power.He becomes the first emperor of Rome.He even changes his name to Caesar Augustus, meaning “exalted or great one”.
9 Caesar AugustusAugustus is a just and able ruler and further expands the empire.He also creates a lasting system of government.- glorifies Rome with beautiful public buildings- sets up a civil service to administer the empireStarting with Augustus’ rule, Rome would enjoy a period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana or “Roman Peace” which lasts about 200 years.
10 Roman Empire GrowsDuring the Pax Romana, Rome had a series of five good emperors under whom the Empire grew.At it’s height, the Empire had over 50 million people living in about 3.5 million square miles of land across Europe, the Middle East and Africa.Many people were able to establish local customs but maintained the protection of the Roman Empire and the privileges that came with being a citizen.Roman culture, law and the Latin language spread throughout the empire.
13 The Roman Empire at 14 ADat the death of Augustus
14 The Roman Empire in AD 116The empire at its largest extent
15 Trade (Good & Bad)Trade throughout Europe, Africa and as far as china along the Silk Road provided the people of the empire with everything they needed, especially grainOver time, the divide between the rich and the poor grew and the small farmers became increasingly dependent on the Empire’s grain handouts.