Mythical version: *Romulus and Remus – twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess *Abandoned and cared for by she-wolf *Romulus kills Remus; becomes 1 st king of Rome Historical version: *Latins settled on Palatine around 1200 B.C. *Etruscans rule Rome (Latins) from 800-500 B.C. *Romans overthrow Etruscan leaders and set up a Republic in 509 B.C.
Romans conquered & controlled all of Italy by 275 B.C. City-state Carthage ruled much of North Africa, Spain, & Sicily Roman conflict with Carthage started the Punic Wars Romans fought Carthaginians for control of Mediterranean Sea Hannibal defeated in 2 nd Punic War; Carthage lost all its territories to Romans By 146 B.C., Rome was the leading power of the Mediterranean Sea
Rome’s conquests cause changes in economy & govt *gap grows between rich & poor *large estates replaced small farms *cities become crowded Julius Caesar built up army & took power * conquered Britain, Libya, Egypt, Syria & Asia Minor *Caesar assassinated by those who opposed his dictatorship
After Caesar’s death, civil war breaks out between Mark Antony and Octavian Octavian wins naval battle at Actium 31 B.C. Octavian becomes absolute ruler of Rome = given the title “Augustus” (honored) Augustus ends expansion of the Empire at its defensible boundaries “Pax Romana” = a time of peace & unity for the Empire
Five Good Emperors rule Rome between A.D. 96 – 186 Trajan, last great conqueror, establishes 4 new provinces Empire reaches greatest height under Trajan in A.D. 117 After A.D. 186, civil war breaks out in the Empire and emperors lose control Rome’s size difficult to manage; Diocletian divides it in two Constantine emerges as leader in A.D. 312 – moves capital to Constantinople & legalizes Christianity
Barbarians attack the empire from many sides Internally, gladitorial games are a sign of Rome’s decline
1. In the mythical version of the founding of Rome, who was the first king of Rome? 2. In the historical version of the founding of Rome, what group settled on the Palatine in 1200 B.C.? 3. What is the conflict between the Romans and the Carthaginians called? 4. What famous Carthaginian general was defeated in the 2 nd Punic War?
5. Name two places Rome conquered in the Punic Wars. 6. Name two places conquered by Julius Caesar. 7. How did Julius Caesar’s reign come to an end? 8. Who was victorious at Actium in 31 B.C.? 9. What title was Octavian given when he became the absolute ruler of Rome? 10. What does “Pax Romana” mean?
11. When did the Roman Empire reach its greatest size? 12. Which emperor is considered the last great conqueror? 13. Who divided the empire to make it more manageable? 14. Which emperor legalized Christianity? 15. Give one possible reason for the collapse of the Roman Empire.