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Unit 5: Ancient Rome (Part II) From Republic to Empire s.aspx?aid=21119&xtid=43006&loid=100115.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: Ancient Rome (Part II) From Republic to Empire s.aspx?aid=21119&xtid=43006&loid=100115."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5: Ancient Rome (Part II) From Republic to Empire s.aspx?aid=21119&xtid=43006&loid=100115

2 After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories in Northern Italy & gained great wealth One of the generals who led Rome’s expansion was a politician named Julius Caesar

3 Problems for the Roman Republic ■ Rome’s expansion brought wealth, but also created problems: – The addition of new lands & sources of slave labor increased the gap between the rich & poor. New class of landowners owned huge estates called latifundias. Farmers faced problems with falling grain prices  farmers in debt forced to sell land. – Generals who controlled the armies became more powerful than the politicians in the Senate – Struggles for power led to a series of civil wars in Rome

4 Attempts at Reform ■ Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus: tribune leaders ■ Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats – land redistribution ■ Public funds to support the poor. ■ Called for extension of full citizenship to Rome’s allies. ■ Results: Both leaders assassinated ■ Century of civil war: Senate vs. political leaders

5 Civil War ■ 87 BCE Gaius Marius takes Rome ■ Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out 83 BCE ■ 5 year reign of terror follows, resulting in the murder or execution of up to 10,000 Marian supporters

6 The First Triumvirate 1) Julius Caesar 2) Crassus 3) Pompey Political disagreements led Caesar and Pompey to command rival armies. Caesar defied orders of Senate. Caesar gained support of army and masses.

7 The Rise & Fall of Julius Caesar Julius Caesar took advantage of the chaos in Rome & was named dictator by the senate in 46 B.C. He initiated a series of reforms that offered Roman citizenship to conquered people, created new jobs in public works projects and offered land to peasants. A dictator is ruler who heads the military and controls with total authority Crossing the Rubicon “Veni, Vidi, Vici”

8 Provided jobs for poor Army veterans given land Aligned with the solar year Libraries, temples & Forum built Course of Tiber River altered Built roads & bridges to connect empire “All roads lead to Rome” Colonies established for trade Distributed free grain

9 In 44 B.C., Senators assassinated Julius Caesar Many Senators led by Marcus Brutus & Gaius Cassius feared Caesar’s popularity & power as dictator of Rome

10 The assassination led to another civil war led by Caesar’s grandnephew Octavian, his best general, Mark Antony, and a politician named Lepidus.

11 Second Triumvirate 1)Octavian 2)Mark Antony 3)Lepidus Purged republic of Caesar’s enemies Mark Antony falls in love with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt Octavian accused Antony of wanting to rule Rome from Egypt Civil war erupts  Octavian becomes emperor of Rome  Republic collapses

12 End of the Republic & Rise of the Empire ■ Caesar’s death changed Rome: – People no longer trusted the Senate to rule Rome & the Roman Republic came to an end & the empire began

13 The Rise of the Roman Empire Octavian emerged as the unchallenged leader of Rome, was given the title Augustus (“Exalted One”), & became Rome’s first emperor Under Augustus, Rome was ruled as an empire; the Senate still met but the emperor had all the real power


15 Imperial Rome’s Government Stable Government 1)Well trained civil service 2)Ordered census to make tax system fair 3)Postal service 4)Developed a well-ordered bureaucracy 5)Common currency throughout empire

16 The Pax Romana Augustus’ 41 year reign marked the beginning of a 207-year era of peace, wealth, & expansion known as the Pax Romana (“the Roman Peace”) from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D. Pax Romana Pax Romana

17 During the Pax Romana, the empire expanded to its height & brought great wealth to Rome

18 The Pax Romana became the “golden age” of Rome as emperors like Augustus built roads & a merit-based bureaucracy to rule the empire Roman aqueducts brought water to cities

19 Roman architects used new styles like domes & concrete to beautify cities

20 Bread and Circuses Emperors built arenas & used chariot races, gladiator events, & theater to entertain the poor The Roman Coliseum



23 Colosseum & Circus Maximus ■ Colosseum 80 A.D. – Held gladiator & animal fights – Held 50,000 people ■ Circus Maximus – Held chariot races – Held 250,000 – Bread and Circus Policy

24 Roman Civil Service ■ Rome’s 1 st emperor, Augustus, created several systems to help himself rule the enormous empire better. ■ Augustus set up a civil service, with salaried, experienced workers to take care of the empire. ■ These bureaucrats helped oversee the empire by keeping track of grain, the roads, the postal service and all other things needed to run an empire.

25 Roman Civil Service Answer these questions: 1.Why do you think that Augustus formed the civil service? 2.Name 3 civil service jobs that allow the president to do his job better

26 Conclusions ■ Rome expanded from a city, to a republic, to an empire – The era of the Roman Republic introduced representative democracy – The era of the Roman Empire sparked the Pax Romana & the “golden age” of Roman innovation & culture

27 1.Caligula and Nero – playing fiddle while Rome burns 2.Hadrian – codified Roman law, built wall around Britain 3.Marcus Aurelias – Last of the Good Emperors

28 Roman Society Changing Role of Women Women ran businesses Supported arts and wealthy Most worked at home Education Girls and Boys read and write Greeks educated wealthy Rhetoric important

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