Presentation on theme: "Christian Europe 600-1200 Describe the political development of Europe after the fall of Rome. What factors led to the development of feudalism? Who were."— Presentation transcript:
1 Christian EuropeDescribe the political development of Europe after the fall of Rome. What factors led to the development of feudalism?Who were the Vikings and what effect did they have on Europe?Describe the political and religious significance of the Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire.What are the root causes of the split between the Western (Latin) and Eastern (Greek) churches?What were the causes and impact of the Crusades?
2 I. Fall of Rome 476 CE Rome falls to Visigoth invaders Centralized government disappearsLoss of Greek and Roman learning and common languageTransportation, trade and communication halts
3 II. Long Term Effects Constant warfare/invasions Cities abandoned as economic/political centersPopulation becomes rural: Political, economic, cultural change in W. EuropeFeudalism develops
4 III. Stages of Middle Ages ( ): No unity. Several small kingdoms form: Franks, Visigoths, SaxonsViking raids beginWilliam the Conqueror invades England 1066
7 (750-814)- Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne (747-814) prevents Muslims from invading W. Europe. Some strength/unity but still quite fragmented
8 3. ( )- Carolingian Empire falls apart and feudalism becomes dominant social and political system
9 KINGS KNIGHTS NOBLES(LORDS) PESANTS/SERFS Divides and distributes land (feifdoms)Pledges loyaltySends militarywhen requestedNOBLES(LORDS)Pledges loyaltyServes in noble’s militaryProvides shelter, protection and means to produce food (serfs)KNIGHTSProvides shelter, protection and landFarms the landPays rent and taxesPESANTS/SERFS
14 Social StructureNobles- wealthy ruling class that owned all the land: kings, lords, knightsSerfs- largest but poorest part of population. Did most of labor.Freemen- lived in town; craftsmen who made/sold goods. Not naturally part of feudal system.
15 Manorial SystemLarge estates that were able to meet all of their own needsSmaller farmers ceded land to nobles for protectionMade up of fields, small town w/ a mill and workshops, a church, and castle
17 4. (1050-1300)- Rise of national monarchs brings some stability Agricultural revolution allows for population increaseCommercial revival: Trade starts up again, cities are repopulated
18 IV. Western Church Headed by pope Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (962) in attempt to combine religious/political powerInvestiture Controversy: rulers/popes disagreed over appointing bishopsMonasticism-Celibacy, devotion to prayer, isolationMonasteries were centers of learning, inns, refuge for widows
19 V. Byzantine Empire Emperor was head of church: Patriarch Foreign threats:Sassanids (Iran)Muslim Arabs take Syria, Egypt, and TunisiaSchism split w/ Western ChurchConstantinople: well-supplied but rural areas sufferedBody of Civil Law (Corpus Juris Civilis)- later became basis for W. European civil law
20 VI. Kievan Russia Poor land- wealth depended on trade Major cities: Kiev and NovgorodVladimir I (980) adopted Orthodox Christianity
21 VII. Crusades (1100-1250) Causes: Impact: Religious zeal- wanted to liberate Holy LandKnights willing to fight for churchDesire for land by Euro. NobilityTrade interestsImpact:Ended Europe’s intellectual isolation! Examples?