2 Don’t writeDuring the early middle ages, 500 to 1000, Europe was isolated from the more advanced civilizations in the Middle East, South Asia and China.A Land of Great Potential Roman roads connected places, spreading Christianity, classical ideas, and the Latin language.
3 Geography: Western Europe: relatively small Resources: Dense forests Rich black earth good for farmingRich mineralsSeas (Mediterranean, Black, North, Baltic), and Atlantic Ocean
4 Germanic Tribes Farmers and herders Very different than the Romans Small communities (no cities)No written laws, relied on customRuled by kingsNoble warriorsDivided Western Europe into small kingdoms.Most successful kingdom: Franks
5 Islam: A New Mediterranean Power Conquered Christian kingdoms in Spain and North Africa.Tried to conquer France but lost the Battle of Tours (732).
6 Charlemagne (Charles the Great) Around A.D. 800 His empire unified Europe (France, Germany, Italy)—put together the old Roman EmpireTall man, intimidating on a horse (giant), liked fightingSpent most of his time fighting Muslims (Moors) in Spain, Saxons in the North, Avars and Slavs in the east and Lombards in Italy.Crowned emperor by the Pope paving way to split between East and West (*Eastern emperor was not happy!*)
7 Charlemagne’s Government Tried to spread Christianity.Appointed missi domini to check on provinces
8 A Revival of Learning Tried to revive learning of Latin Tried to reverse the trend of ignoranceSet up a school at Aachen run byAlcuinSubjects: grammar, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomyBooks: Bible, ancient manuscripts
9 New AttacksAfter Charlemagne’s death, Muslims, Magyars and Vikings attacked.Vikings were the most vicious attackers but traded extensively too.Leif Eriksson – sailed to N.A. in 1,000.
10 PoliticalFeudalism- A political system which exchanges land for military service.King gives lord (vassal) a fief (land). In exchange, the lord (vassal) gives the king his loyalty and protection when needed.Lords gradually became more powerful than kings as they acquired more land.
11 Feudalism King or lord Vassal or lord Required to give: -Fief (land) -loyalty-military service
12 Social Kings and Lords were at the top of the social hierarchy. Knights- mounted warriorsChivalry- code ofconduct for knights(be brave, loyal,polite)
13 Feudal lords battled constantly for power and land By the 1100’s, fighting declined so lords held tournaments (fake battles) to entertain people.
14 Serfs- peasants who worked the lord’s land They could not leave without permissionThey paid the lord rent in food and labor (no $$) for use of the land and protection.
15 Role of WomenNoblewomen managed the household and were in change when men were away.Rights:Received a limited inheritanceArranged marriages, expected to have many kidsFew knew how to read and writeChivalry raised women to a new status. They were protected and cherished.
16 EconomicManorialism- an economy where land, not money, is the basis of wealth
17 Manor- the lord’s estate, which included the town, peasant houses, church, and fields - Self-sufficient, which led to a decline in tradeThree-field system- two fields planted, one left fallow (empty) to regain fertility