Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Final Exam Review The Catholic Church The Catholic Church was a unifying force in Europe In 380, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the state."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 Final Exam Review The Catholic Church The Catholic Church was a unifying force in Europe In 380, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire Bishop of Rome became known as the pope.
Kingdom of the Franks - The Merovingian Family The Franks lasted a long time. Clovis was a strong military leader who established the Frankish kingdom; the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity (around 500)
The Carolingian Empire The Frankish kings lost their power to Pepin His son, Charles became king when Pepin died. Charles the Great, or Charlemagne ruled from 768 to 814. In 800 Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans
The Norsemen of Scandinavia – the Vikings – a Germanic people, invaded many areas of Europe. In 911, the ruler of the west Frankish lands gave one band of Vikings land at the mouth of the Seine River in what would become Normandy. The Vikings were converted to Christianity and were made a part of European civilization.
The Development of Feudalism Feudalism, a political and social system was developed to help rulers protect their lands from invasion. Warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their leaders and fought for them. The leaders took care of the warriors needs. A man who served a lord in a military capacity was known as a vassal. Lords had vassals, but were themselves vassals to the king. Knights were horsemen who wore armor and used lances.
In 1066, a Norman duke, William the Conqueror, invaded England and defeated King Harold and his foot soldiers at the Battle of Hastings. William was crowned King of England.
The Byzantine Empire – The Eastern Roman Empire evolved into the smaller Byzantine Empire, which preserved and transmitted Greek and Roman Culture. Review – During the 400s, Germanic tribes moved into the Western Roman Empire and established their states. The Eastern Roman Empire continued to exist, but beginning in the 600s it was pressured by Islamic forces. The Byzantine Empire created a unique civilization that was weakened by the Crusades. The Empire’s greatest external threat came from the Seljuk Turks. In 1071 a Turkish army defeated a Byzantine army, so the emperor asked Europe for help.
Constantinople was the Capital of the Byzantine Empire. Due to its location on the Bosporus between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea it served as the chief center for the exchange of products between West and East. It was the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Its largest church was Hagia Sophia.
Emperor Justinian He became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527. His most important contribution was his codification of Roman law. It is the basis for much of the legal system of Europe.
The Crusades The First Crusade was mostly French warriors They captured Antioch in 1099 The crusaders organized four Latin crusader states which were supported by Genoa, Pisa and Venice. These Italian cities grew rich and powerful in the process
Impacts of the Crusades Enriched the port cities of Italy Caused widespread attacks on Jews in Europe Political impact – crusades helped to break down feudalism – nobles lost power and kings gained power and a greater ability to tax and raise armies. Crusades led to more trade which also could be taxed