Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Christian Societies Emerge in Europe: 600-1200.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Christian Societies Emerge in Europe: 600-1200."— Presentation transcript:

1 Christian Societies Emerge in Europe: 600-1200


3 From Rome to Germanic Kingdoms Western Roman Empire collapsed Political fragmentation Feudalism emerged Christian Church provided stability

4 Spread of Christianity

5 Byzantine Empire “inheritors of Rome” wealth from trade Greek influence Power, influence, territory greatly reduced over time Pressure from Sasanids, Muslim Arabs relations with West Europe declined schism between Latin & Orthodox churches

6 Byzantine Empire Decline of urbanism less severe than in the west middle class reduced –big gap between rich and poor Importance of aristocrats & rural landowners increased Family became more rigid Elite women confined & veiled A few women ruled w/ husbands –Theodora Women did not retreat to nunneries (like in west)

7 Byzantine Empire Emperors controlled: –prices – grain supply –silk Constantinople well supplied rural areas lagged in wealth & technology

8 Byzantine Empire: Cultural Achievements Justinian’s Code –Basis of Western European civil law Hagia Sophia – –domed buildings Cyrillic script

9 Western Medieval Europe Collapse of Western Roman Empire De-urbanization Population declined Literacy declined Local trade Regional elites became more self-sufficient Local traditions flourished Christian Church the only stable, consistent institution

10 Early Medieval Europe 600-1000: A Time of Insecurity Charlemagne united Frankish kingdoms but disintegrated again Vikings, Magyars attack!!! Muslims in Spain halted at Tours but constant source of anxiety

11 Manorial System Self-sufficient farming estates Grew out of need for self-sufficiency & self defense Lord had almost unlimited power over his workers-serfs

12 Feudalism Need for military security led to: –Stirrup –Bigger horses –Armor and weapons Expensive – required land Fiefs became hereditary

13 Medieval Society Kings weak –needed vassals Kings/nobles had unlimited tax authority Couldn’t tax church Noble women were pawns in marriage politics –could own land Non-noble women worked alongside men

14 Medieval Society


16 The Western Church Popes powerful but still needed support from secular leaders Problems: –Standardizing Church regulations –Clergy shortages/literacy –Difficult communications –Political disorder –Polytheism Lax enforcement of: –marriage of clergy –nepotism –Simony (selling church appointments)

17 Holy Roman Empire Popes needed Kings –sought to combine religious & political power Pope crowned early HRE but did not = political power Canon Law gave pope rights over clergy & church property Bishops who held land as vassals owed allegiance to their lord Secular rulers argued that they should have the right to appoint bishops Holy Roman Empire was loose coalition of German princes

18 Investiture Controversy One example: –Conflict between Henry II and his BFF Thomas Becket “Will no one rid me of this troublesome priest?”

19 Concordant of Worms Agreement in which: –Pope elects, “invests” bishops with spiritual authority –Secular rulers give them fiefs of land Separation of Church and State? Part of a series of reforms of the Church

20 Monasticism built on foundation of previous religious practices – celibacy –devotion to prayer –isolation from society St Benedict wrote strict rules – governed behavior in monastery Thousands left society, devoted themselves to monastic life

21 Role of Monasteries Centers of literacy & learning Refuge for widows & other vulnerable women Inns for travelers orphanages Ministered to sick Managed agricultural land Lax supervision by Catholic hierarchy

22 Kievan Russia: 900-1200 Diverse language & ethnic groups –Slavs, Finns, Turks Varangians dominant traders Linked Black & Caspian Seas to Silk Road Kiev and Novgorod important trade cities Vladimir I-Prince of Kiev- formed ties to Byzantines –Married Byzantine princesses Orthodox Christianity Cyrillic alphabet

23 Kievan Russia Poor agricultural land Short growing season primitive farming technology Food production low Relied on trade Small urban centers Christianity spread slowly- pagan customs, polygamy persisted until 12 th century Christianity grew more powerful-functioned as tax collectors for the state

24 Western Europe Revives: 1000-1200 Climate warmed Population/agricultural production increased Trade resurged Kings grew stronger New technologies –Heavy moldboard plow –Horse collar –Breast-strap harness

25 Cities & Rebirth of Trade Independent, self- governing cities emerged Relied on manufacturing & trade Venice dominant sea power-traded in Muslim ports for spices & other goods Flanders imported wool from England - wove it into cloth for export



28 The Crusades Series of Christian military campaigns against Muslims in eastern Mediterranean Factors –Religious zeal –Church- sanctioned warfare –Desire for land on part of younger sons of European nobility –Commercial opportunities –adventure

29 The Crusades Motivation: Byzantine Emperor requested help Muslims controlled Holy Land Pope Urban II initiated 1st Crusade called on Europeans to stop fighting each other & fight Muslims instead Reduced conflict in West. Europe Only 1 st Crusade successful

30 The Impact of Crusades Increased hostilities between Christians & Muslims Ended European isolation Pope’s power strengthened but then weakened Kings power strengthened Trade increased Feudalism weakened Cities grew, gained independence New technologies Europeans became curious about the world

Download ppt "Christian Societies Emerge in Europe: 600-1200."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google