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Warm-Up: Spiral Page 8 The Middle Ages in Europe

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1 Warm-Up: Spiral Page 8 The Middle Ages in Europe
What was the impact of the fall of Rome on Europe? Barbarians invade the Roman Empire A period of chaos and turmoil follow the fall of Rome Eastern Rome becomes the Byzantine Empire Feudalism begins

2 Brainstorm: “Middle Ages”

3 Introduction to Middle Ages:
BrainPop: Middle Ages


5 Europe After the Fall of the Roman Empire
Eastern Rome: Empire continued as the Byzantine Empire for a 1,000 years Eastern Orthodox Western Rome: Period of chaos, turmoil, violence Different tribes set up separate kingdoms Outside invasions Decline of cities and learning Roman Catholicism

6 The Byzantine Empire Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople United by Christianity: Eastern Orthodoxy Greatest Achievement: Code of Justinian Roman laws organized into a single law code

7 Effects of the invasions:
Middle Ages (476 A.D. to 1400s) Period of history after the fall of Rome in Western Europe The period between ancient and modern times = “middle” Germanic tribes invaded Western Rome “Barbarians” = anyone who came from a foreign, non-Roman culture; uncivilized Effects of the invasions: Disruption of trade Travel unsafe due to violence Cities and town abandoned Learning decreased Life became rural and unsafe

8 The Reign of Charlemagne:
Reunited Western Europe Greatest Empire since Rome Charlemagne crowned “Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire” by the pope Historic: Signified the new political and religious unity of Western Europe

9 Feudalism A system of exchanging land for loyalty and service.
Why feudalism? Protection from violence Provide for basic economic needs Helped survive the breakdown of central government and order Characteristics of Feudalism: Social Political Economic

10 Feudalism: Social Characteristics
Kings give land to lords in exchange for military service Lords (nobles) give land to knights in exchange for loyalty Peasants (serfs) farmed and received protection


12 BRAIN BREAK! BrainPop: Feudalism

13 Feudalism: Political Nobles controlled political life
Built castles for protection Had armies of knights King relied on the nobles for his own army Civil Wars were frequent

14 Feudalism: Economic Manorialism = self-sufficient communities

15 Interactive Notebook Activity: Medieval Manor
On the paper provided draw your own medieval self-sufficient manor system. (Textbook pg. 326) And color!

16 Warm-Up: Spiral page 9 The Age of Faith
What was the one unifying and common factor in medieval Europe? Christianity Why?

17 Reasons for the Church’s Power:
The Role of Faith: People very religious Church represented God Had the power to send a person to Heaven or Hell United by common faith Power and Wealth: Nobles left land to the Church Church became Europe’s largest landowner Tithes: church taxes

18 Learning and Art Church was the center of learning
Church officials only ones who could read and write St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas Promoted Christian faith and teachings New art style: Gothic Pointed arches, high spires, stained glass windows The relationship between lords and vassals made up a big part of the political and social structure of the feudal system. Based on ties of loyalty and duty among nobles Nobles were both lords and vassals Ties were made official by the “act of homage” Fiefs were given to vassals by lords Lords gave vassals the right to govern the people who lived on their fiefs Lords promised to give protection to the vassals Breaking the feudal contract could mean loss of land Vassals had certain duties to perform for the lord. Helped the lord in battle Participated personally in military service 40 – 60 days a year Gave money when the lord’s daughters married and when sons were knighted Paid the lord’s ransom or took his place if he was captured Attended the lord’s court Provided food and entertainment when the lord visited All nobles were ultimately vassals of the king. Nobles provided the king with knights to form an army for defense and conquest Because of this, the real power belonged to the nobles.

19 Christianity Comparison:
Roman Catholicism: Practiced in Western Europe Services in Latin Pope authority over bishops Pope authority over kings and emperors Priests may not marry Divorce is not permitted Eastern Orthodoxy: Began in Byzantine Empire Services in Greek Patriarch over bishops Emperor authority over patriarch and bishops Priests can marry Divorce allowed

20 Magna Carta Signed by King John in 1215
Developed the ideas of liberty and limited self-government Limited the powers of the king Guaranteed a trial by jury and new taxes to be approved

21 Brain Break: BrainPop: Magna Carta

22 Christian Europeans challenged Muslims for control of the Holy Land
Crusades Christian Europeans challenged Muslims for control of the Holy Land Effects of the Crusades: Introduced Europeans to new goods and ideas from the Middle East Increased trade Almost all nobles were knights Society made up of three groups – nobles, clergy and peasants and townspeople Knight’s training: Began at age 7 as a page Under guidance of the lady of the manor - Taught courtly manners, sometimes reading, music, dancing – all the necessities of a noble - Ran errands and served her in return Also began serving the knights performing simple tasks Became a squire at age 15 and placed under guidance of a knight - Taught the skills of knighthood, especially horsemanship and combat skills. - Followed knight into battle and helped him if he was wounded or fell off his horse If proven to be a good fighter he was rewarded by being made a knight - Special ceremony known as dubbing Knights were expected to follow certain rules known as the code of chivalry Knights trained for war by fighting each other in tournaments Most popular form of entertainment during the Middle Ages Popular event was joust

23 Crusade Breakdown through song…
The Crusades

24 Interactive Notebook Activity:
Create a Help Wanted Ad for a Knight in the Crusades From the perspective of someone who needs the services of a knight. Must include: Reasons to join Duties/Responsibilities Rewards Pictures/Color **Use textbook pgs

25 Warm-Up: Spiral pg.10 End of the Middle Ages
“In the year 1348 there was a great plague in the city of Florence. It was of such a fury that in houses in which it took hold healthy servants who took care of the ill died. Almost none of the ill survived past the fourth day. Neither physicians nor medicines were effective. There seemed to be no cure. There was such a fear that no one seemed to know what to do. When it took hold in a house it often happened that no one remained who had not died. And it was not just that men and women died, but even animals died. At every church, they dug deep trenches, down to the waterline, depending on how large the parish was. And those who were responsible for the dead carried them on their back in the night and threw them into the ditch, or else they paid a high price to those who would do it for them.” READ THE PARAGRAPH ABOVE…

26 Warm-Up What event is being described in the paragraph?
How do you think this is going to affect Europe?

27 Notes: Graphic Organizer
Create the graphic organizer below in your spiral under the warm-up. As we go, complete the graphic organizer describing the role played by each in bringing about an end to the Middle Ages. END OF THE MIDDLE AGES The Crusades The Black Death The Great Schism The Hundred Years’ War

28 End of the Middle Ages Effect of the Crusades on the Middle Ages:
New trade led to growth of towns, the development of a middle class, and the greater use of money. Instead of services, people paid with money

29 End of the Middle Ages Effects of the Black Death:
Killed 1/3 of Europe’s population (25 million) Created a labor shortage in Europe Feudal System ended Offered freedom and money for work Faith in the Church decreased

30 The Black Plague through song… Fleas on Rats
Brain Break: The Black Plague through song… Fleas on Rats

31 End of the Middle Ages The Hundred Years’ War
England vs. France over the French throne Effects: King’s created their own armies New weapons Long bow, cannon, gunpowder Greater feelings of nationalism

32 End of the Middle Ages The Great Schism
Split within the Catholic church between the Italian and French popes Effects: Greatly weakened the Church’s authority

33 Interactive Notebook Activity
The Black Plague Using textbook pages , Create a WARNING SIGN for the Bubonic Plague. Your sign should be a warning to people describing the plague.  Include the Following on Your Warning Sign: Causes of the Plague Where the Plague originated (came from) Effects of the Plague (symptoms) Death Tolls Precautions (things you can do to avoid the plague) One picture

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