IRONY Contrast or discrepancy between expectations and reality
WHAT KIND OF IRONY? VERBAL SITUATIONAL DRAMATIC Writer says one thing but means another What really happens is opposite of what has happened When the audience/reader knows something the character does not
Symbolism A symbol stands for or represents something else - happiness -sadness ♥ - love ♪
TONE The attitude the writer takes toward the reader, a subject, or a character(s).
Mood The feeling the reader gets after reading the text
Style The way an author uses language to write a story
THEME The central idea or insight of a work of literature.
Foreshadowing A hint in the text (from the author) that something is going to happen Examples: Dark clouds, thunderstorms, blood, graveyards
CONFLICT A clash of actions, ideas, goals, or desires in the plot of a story or novel. CHARACTER VS. CHARACTER CHARACTER VS. ENVIRONMENT CHARACTER VS. HIMSELF One character against another. Character against the environment around him/her. Character versus his inner self.
External Conflict A struggle between a character and an outside force is an external conflict. Characters may face several types of outside forces. The outside force may be another character. It may be the character and the community. The outside force may also be forces of nature. For example, a story might be the main character struggling against the arctic cold. Man against man Man against nature Internal Conflict A struggle that takes place in a character's mind is called internal conflict. For example, a character may have to decide between right and wrong or between two solutions to a problem. Sometimes, a character must deal with his or her own mixed feelings or emotions. Man against himself.
The Importance of Conflict Conflict is necessary to every story. In short stories, there is usually one major conflict. In longer stories, there could be several conflicts.short stories Conflict adds excitement and suspense to a story. The conflict usually becomes clear to the beginning of a story. As the plot unfolds, the reader starts to wonder what will happen next and how the characters will handle the situation. Many readers enjoy trying to predict the final outcome.plot The excitement usually builds to a high point, or climax. The climax is the turning point of the story. Something has happened to resolve the conflict.
Reading for Conflict As you read a story: identify the main characters decide what conflict they face look for steps they take to settle that conflict see if the steps cause other conflict watch for clues and try to predict what the characters will do enjoy the buildup of suspense put yourself in the story decide if you would have solved the conflict in the same way
Point of View 1 st : uses “I”; told from one person’s point of view 3 rd limited: told in 3 rd person; a narrator; don’t know characters thoughts and opinions 3 rd omniscient: as if “God” is telling the story; we know everything about every character
Characterization The creation of the image of imaginary person in drama, narrative poetry, the novel, or a short story. Characterization generates plot and is revealed by actions, speech, thoughts, physical appearance, and the other characters’ thoughts or words about him.
Types of Characters Static Character- Static characters are minor characters in a work of fiction who do not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story. Also referred to as "two-dimensional characters" or "flat characters," they play a supporting role to the main character, who as a rule should be round, or complex.flat charactersround Dynamic Character- The opposite of static characters, dynamic characters will undergo some kind of change in the course of the story.story
Types of Characters Flat Character- A flat character is a minor character in a work of fiction who does not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story. Also referred to as "two- dimensional characters" or "static characters," flat characters play a supporting role to the main character, who as a rule should be round.static charactersround Round Character- A round character is a major character in a work of fiction who encounters conflict and is changed by it. Round characters tend to be more fully developed and described than flat, or static, characters. If you think of the characters you most love in fiction, they probably seem as real to you as people you know in real life. This is a good sign that they are round characters.flatstatic
Types of Characters Stock characters draw from widely known cultural types for their characteristics and mannerisms, and are often used in parody. Every culture has its own set of stock characters. The protagonist is the main character in a story, novel, drama, or other literary work, the character that the reader or audience empathizes with. The antagonist opposes the protagonist. In the most archetypical narratives, this boils down to bad guy vs. good guyantagonist The antagonist in a work of fiction is the character who opposes the hero, or protagonist. The antagonist, when there is one, provides the story's conflict.characterprotagonist
. Personality of a Character When you write a character analysis, you will be expected to describe a character's personality. We get to know characters in our stories through the things they say, feel, and do. It's not as difficult as it may seem to figure out a character's personality traits based on his/her thoughts and behaviors: You will receive clues about a character's personality through his or her: Words Actions Reactions Feelings Movements Thoughts Mannerisms
Character Role When you write a character analysis, you must also define each character's role. In addition to having personality traits, characters also fill certain roles in a story. They either play a major role, as a central element to the story, or they play a minor role to serve a supporting role in the story. Protagonist: The protagonist of a story is often called the main character. The plot revolves around the protagonist. There may be more than one main character.protagonist In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck Finn is the protagonist. In Little Red Riding Hood, the little girl is the protagonist.
Character Role, cont. Antagonist: The antagonist is the character who represents a challenge or an obstacle to the protagonist in a story. In some stories, the antagonist is not a person!antagonist In Little Red Riding Hood, the wolf is the antagonist. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, society is the antagonist. Society, with its unfair laws and rules, represents the obstacle to Huck's development as a person. Foil: A foil is a character who provides contrast to the main character (protagonist), in order to emphasize the main character's traits. In A Christmas Carol, the kind nephew Fred is the foil to nasty Ebenezer Scrooge.
Characterization When you are asked to write a character analysis, you will be expected to explain how a character changes and grows. Most characters go through changes as a story unfolds-otherwise, stories would be pretty boring! There is direct characterization and indirect characterization. Direct characterization is when the author tells the reader something about the character.
Characterization Indirect characterization is when the author uses words to show the reader something about the character. The author can show you what the character says, do and thinks and through water other characters say about, think about, or how they act towards that character. 1) Action 2) How Others View Them 3) Private Thoughts 4) Dialogue 5) Appearance
Persona A persona is a fictional character. Sometimes the term means the mask or alter-ego of the author; it is often used for first person works and lyric poems, to distinguish the writer of the work from the character in the work.