2 Types of Characters:Protagonist – the main character in the story (often the “good guy”)Antagonist – The person or force that works against the protagonist (often the “bad guy”)Direct - Physical Description: the way a writer creates and develops characterization through direct description.Direct – Through the author’s direct commentsIndirect - Thoughts, Speech, and Actions:Indirect - Through other characters’ reactions (what they say, how they are treated)
3 Other Types of Characters Foil – A character who serves as a contrast or challenge to the main characterDynamic (round) – A character who encounters conflict and is changed by it. Dynamic characters tend to be more fully developed and described than flat, or static, characters. If you think of the characters you most love in fiction, they probably seem as real to you as people you know in real life.Static (flat) –Minor characters in a work of fiction who do not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story. Also referred to as "two-dimensional characters" or "flat characters." They play a supporting role to the main character, who as a rule, should be round or complex.
4 Feelings of StoriesMood – the feeling a piece of literature creates IN THE READER! What mood you feel when you read a piece of literature. Think of your favorite book. How did you feel when you read it?Tone – attitude or feeling of the literature from the characters, word choice, and/or style. The tone of the story affects the mood. For example, scary, funny, sad, suspenseful, romantic, etc.
5 What creates Tone?Word Choice –The author’s word choice shows meaning and feeling. For example:He's passed away - (sad)He's sleeping with the fishes or He kicked the bucket - (funny)He died - (depressing)He's gone to meet his Maker - (scary or suspenseful)Dialogue – contributes to the Tone of the story. How do the characters speak to one another? Are they Angry? Funny? Nice? Hateful?
6 Plot Line: series of events in a story (in order) Exposition – characters are introduced, setting is explained along with the backgroundRising Action – various problems (conflicts) start to arise (see next slide for types)Climax – turning point in the story when everything changesFalling Action – action and dialogue after the climax that leads to the endResolution – problems are solved in the endSetting: The time and place of the action. Elements include geographic location, time period (present, past, or future), season, time of day, and culture
7 *CONFLICT* - a problem or struggle between two opposing forces Person vs. Person – a problem between charactersPerson vs. Himself – a problem within a character’s own mindPerson vs. Society – a problem between the character and school, the law, or some traditionPerson vs. Nature – a problem between the character and an element of nature (blizzard, hurricane, a mountain climb, etc.)Person vs. Fate (God) – a problem or struggle that is well beyond the character’s control
8 *Plots within a Plot*Subplot – Connected to the main plot by complicating it or supporting it. Sometimes two opening subplots will merge into the main plot. Example: what TV show do you watch that has a story within a story?Parallel Episodes – when two plots are happening at the same time but do not connect until the end. These parallel episodes do not effect the story until the end when they merge together. Can you think of an example?
9 IronySituational Irony: when the opposite of what is expected to happen, happens. Example: you wash your car and then it rains. You study for the test all night, but it is not the next day. Dramatic Irony: when the audience is aware of something that the characters in the story are not aware of (this creates a suspenseful tone/mood.) Example: In the Hunger Games, Katniss kisses Peeta so he can receive the necessary ointment to heal him. The reader knows this but Peeta and those viewing the games do not.Verbal Irony: when someone knowingly exaggerates or says one thing and means the opposite or something else.
10 Flashback and Foreshadowing Flashback – a transition to an earlier event that interrupts the normal plot line. This is used for the reader/audience to gain insight into characters using events in the past.Foreshadowing – clues about what will happen later in the story…
11 Points of View:First Person – one of the characters is telling the storyThird Person – someone from the outside is telling the story; 2 types:Omniscient – narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of more than one characterLimited – narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of only ONE character
12 Theme: what did you learn in the end? Theme is the message the author is getting across to the reader about life or human nature. What did you learn?Example: What is the theme of the Hunger Games?…obsession with fame, division of social classes, power of the people…