2 NOVELA long fictional story, whose length is normally somewhere between one hundred and five hundred pagesUses the elements of storytelling: PLOT, CHARACTER, SETTING, THEME, and POINT OF VIEW
3 SHORT STORYA short fictional prose narrative that usually makes up about 10 to 20 book pagesFollows the elements of plot-introduction/exposition, complications/rising action, climax, falling action, resolution1st written in the 19th centuryMore limited than novels-usually have only 1 or 2 major characters and one important setting
4 PLOT The series of related events that make up a story INTRODUCTION/ EXPOSITION: tells us who the characters are and, usually, what their conflict isCOMPLICATIONS/RISING ACTION: arise as the characters take steps to resolve the conflictCLIMAX: the most exciting moment in the story, when the outcome is decided one way or anotherFALLING ACTION: final part of a story when the characters’ problems are solvedRESOLUTION: the story is closed
5 CONFLICTA struggle or clash between opposing characters, or between opposing forces.INTERNAL CONFLICT: a struggle occurs within the character’s own mindMan vs. selfEXTERNAL CONFLICT: a character struggles against some outside forceMan vs. manMan vs. natureMan vs. society
6 POINT OF VIEW The vantage point from which a story is told OMNISCIENT: All knowing, the narrator knows everything about the characters and their problems; past, present, and future3RD PERSON LIMITED: the narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of just one character1ST PERSON: one of the characters is actually telling the story, using the personal pronoun “I”
7 The time and place of a story or play SETTINGThe time and place of a story or play
8 ATMOSPHERE/MOOD The overall mood or emotion of a work of literature Ex: scary, dreamy, happy, sadAtmosphere is created through a writer’s use of words to create images, sounds, and descriptions that convey a particular feeling.
9 CHARACTERA person, animal, or thing in a story, play, or other literary work.Static character: one who does NOT change very much throughout the story or piece of workDynamic character: one who changes as a result of the story’s events.
10 PROTAGONIST The main character in a work of literature ANTAGONIST: a character who is opposing the protagonist
11 CHARACTERIZATIONThe process of revealing the personality of a character.6 ways to reveal characterizationBy letting us HEAR THE CHARACTER SPEAKBy DESCRIBING how the character LOOKS AND DRESSESBy letting us LISTEN to the CHARACTER’S INNER THOUGHTS AND FEELINGSBy revealing what OTHER PEOPLE IN THE STORY THINK OR SAY about the characterBy showing us WHAT THE CHARACTER DOESBy TELLING US DIRECTLY what the character’s personality is like (i.e. cruel, kind, sneaky, brave, and so on)
12 FORESHADOWINGThe use of clues or hints suggesting events that will occur later in the plotUsed to build suspense or anxiety in the reader
13 SUSPENSEThe uncertainty or anxiety we feel about what will happen next in a story
14 FLASHBACKInterruption in the present action of a plot to flash backward and tell what happened at an earlier timeFLASH FORWARD: a break in the movement of a plot to an episode in the future
15 IRONYA contrast between what appears to be true and what is really true or between expectation and realityVERBAL IRONY-contrast between what is said or written and what is really meantSITUATIONAL IRONY-occurs when what happens is very different from what we expected would happenDRAMATIC IRONY-occurs when the audience or reader knows something that a character does not know
16 TONEThe attitude a writer takes toward the audience, a subject, or a characterConveyed through the writer’s choice of words and detailEX: humorous, sad, serious
17 THEME A main idea of a work of literature NOT the same as a subject Theme must be expressed in a statement or sentence, not just one word