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Introduction to Literary Elements Short Story Unit Literature & Composition.

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1 Introduction to Literary Elements Short Story Unit Literature & Composition

2 Fiction  Prose/narrative (story form writing) about imaginary people, places and events  Something that is made up--- not factual  Can seem realistic

3 Plot Exposition Rising Action Falling Action Resolution (Denouement) Climax Turning Point (Inciting Incident)

4 Foreshadowing  The use of clues or hints by the author to prepare the reader for what will happen later  Can use background information, mood & music

5 Conflict  Character vs. Character  Character vs. Society  Character vs. Self  Character vs. Nature  Character vs. Technology/Machine  Character vs. Supernatural/Deity

6 Characterization  What the character says  What the character does  What the character thinks/feels  What other characters say & think about him/her  The character’s physical appearance or environment

7 Dynamic Characters Static Characters  Those who transform or evolve in the story; usually major characters  Those who do NOT change or grow, but remain the same; usually minor characters

8 Protagonist  The character with whom the reader is meant to sympathize  The character who grows or learns something  Often the “hero”

9 Antagonist  The character (or force) who stands in conflict with the protagonist  Often the “villain”

10 Setting  Time/When  Place/Where  Social Atmosphere (affected by historical era, social movements, and crises)

11 Tone The author’s attitude toward his/her subject Emotion words are used to label this element in a story (e.g. – angry, indifferent, excited, sad)

12 Mood / Atmosphere  The reader’s emotional response to the characters and events of a story  Often influenced by setting and tone  Emotion words also used here

13 Symbols  Concrete objects that suggest abstract ideas  Something that stands for something else  For example: red rose=love

14 Point of View: Perspective  First person: narrator is a character in the story (“I” perspective) – can be unreliable!  Third person limited: story is told through the thoughts & feelings of ONE character - the reader may feel like she is looking “over the shoulder” of a character (“S/he”perspective)  Third person omniscient: narrator is NOT a character in the story; story is told from a god- like perspective; can relate knowledge about all characters at any time

15 Irony  Situational: when the opposite of what is expected occurs  Verbal: when a character says one thing but means another (the opposite)  Dramatic: when the audience/reader knows something that a character does not know

16 Theme  The universal truth revealed about life  Must be stated in a complete sentence  Avoids using clichés, giving advice or stating a rule

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