Presentation on theme: "Literary Devices (elements and Techniques) of fiction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Literary Devices (elements and Techniques) of fiction
2 Setting (element)The setting of a story is the time and place in which it occurs.Elements of setting may include the physical, psychological, cultural, or historical background against which the story takes place.
3 CharacterizationCharacterization is the creation of imaginary persons so that they seem lifelike. There are two fundamental methods of characterization.Harmon, W. H. (1996). A handbook to literature (7th Edition ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
4 Direct Characterization The explicit presentation by the author of the character through direct description, either in an introductory block or more often piecemeal throughout the work.Harmon, W. H. (1996). A handbook to literature (7th Edition ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
5 Indirect Characterization The presentation of a character in action, with little or no explicit comment by the author, in the expectation that the reader can deduce the attributes of the character from his/her actions.Harmon, W. H. (1996). A handbook to literature (7th Edition ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
6 Types of Characters (element) Static character—a character who remains primarily the same during the course of a story or novelDynamic character—a character which changes during the course of a story or novelReview the types of characters with students.
7 Types of CharactersFlat character—a two-dimensional and relatively uncomplicated character who does not change throughout a story or novelRound character—a well developed character who demonstrates varied and sometimes contradictory traitsStock Character—a special kind of flat character who is instantly recognizable (stereotypical)Review the types of characters with students.
8 ToneTone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader.For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.
9 MoodThe mood of a story is the atmosphere or feeling created by the writer and expressed through setting.
10 ConflictConflict is the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play. There are two types of conflict that exist in literature.
11 Internal ConflictInternal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action.Character vs. self
12 External ConflictExternal conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another character, nature, society, or fate.Character vs. characterCharacter vs. societyCharacter vs. Nature
13 Theme (element)The theme is the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction; it is a perception about life and the human condition.An implicit theme refers to the author’s ability to construct a piece in such a way that through inference the reader understands the theme.
14 Figurative Language (technique) Figurative Language—Language layered with meaning by word images and figures of speech as opposed to literal language.Image created on
15 Types of Characters Protagonist—the story’s main character Antagonist—a character in opposition of the protagonistReview the types of characters with students.
16 Foreshadowing (technique) Foreshadowing is the presentation of material in a work in such a way that later events are prepared for. The purpose of foreshadowing is to prepare the reader or viewer for action to come.Foreshadowing can result fromthe establishment of a mood or atmosphere,an event that hints at the later action,the appearance of physical objects or facts, orthe revelation of a fundamental and decisive character trait.Harmon, W. H. (1996). A handbook to literature (7th Edition ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
17 Symbol An item that stands for something else. What are these items symbols of?EagleDoveBlack cats
18 Point of ViewThe point of view is the perspective from which the events in the story are told. The author may choose to use any of the following:First personThird-person limitedThird-person omniscient
19 Point of ViewFirst person/subjective—The narrator restricts the perspective to that of only one character to tell the story.Signal pronouns—I, we, us
20 Point of ViewThird-person limited—The narrator restricts his knowledge to one character’s view or behavior.Signal pronouns—he, she, they
21 Point of ViewThird-person omniscient—The narrator tells the story in third person from an all-knowing perspective. The knowledge is not limited by any one character’s view or behavior, as the narrator knows everything about all characters.Signal pronouns—he, she, they