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Introduction and Literary Terms

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1 Introduction and Literary Terms
Unit 1: Short Story Unit Introduction and Literary Terms

2 Short Story Literary Terms
short story plot conflict characters setting characterization antagonist protagonist symbol theme irony point-of-view tone mood imagery dialogue dynamic character foreshadowing static character diction flat character round character

3 A short story is a brief work of fiction meant to be read in one sitting.
It is a work of fiction created from the writer’s imagination and personal vision. Due to the length of a story (usually between 500 and 10,000 words), it must be crafted in a concise, compact manner that accomplishes its purpose in relatively few words. What is a Short Story?

4 Plot A story’s plot is its series of related events.
Throughout the course of a story’s plot, events unfold, build to a climax (or high point), and are then brought to a conclusion.

5 What are some of the key elements of a short story?
Some of the key elements of a short story are: Plot Conflict Characters Setting Symbols, and Theme What are some of the key elements of a short story?

6 The plot consists of: The exposition The rising action The climax
The falling action And The resolution

7 CONFLICT A struggle between opposing forces.
There are two main types of conflict in literature: An external conflict is a struggle with an outside force: Man v. Man Man v. Society Man v. Nature An internal conflict is a struggle within the mind of one character. CONFLICT A struggle between opposing forces.

8 External Conflict! Man v. Man

9 External Conflict! Man v. Nature

10 Internal Conflict Man v. Self

11 Characters The characters in a story are the personalities who participate in the action Usually, story characters are human beings, but they can also be animals or even objects.

12 Characterization The act of creating and developing a character.
Writers use these methods of characterization to tell readers about characters: Providing descriptions of what characters look like. Describing characters’ words and actions Showing characters interaction with one another Sharing characters’ thoughts and feelings.

13 Setting The setting of a story is the time and place of the action.


15 Protagonist & Antagonist
The protagonist is the main character in a literary work. (The protagonist is not necessarily a good guy, but simply the main character.) The antagonist is a character or force in conflict with a main character, or protagonist. (The protagonist is not necessary a bad guy, but simply in conflict with the main character, the protagonist)

16 Symbol A symbol is anything that stands for something else.
For example, a flag is a piece of cloth, but it also represents the idea of a country. (The American Flag also represents a sense of freedom.) Symbol A symbol is anything that stands for something else.

17 Theme A theme is a central message or insight into life that the author is trying to convey. Examples of Themes: You reap what you sow. Being kind to others pays off in the end. The grass is not always greener on the other side. Be grateful for what you have. Never judge a book by it’s cover.

18 Irony Verbal Irony – when words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant. Situational Irony – an event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience. Dramatic Irony – there is a contradiction between what the character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true. Irony is the difference between appearance and reality, or expectation and result. There are 3 types of irony:

19 Point of View (POV) Point of view is the perspective, or vantage point, from which a story is told. 1st person point of view – narrator is part of the story and uses the pronoun “I”. 3rd person point of view – the narrator is not a part of the story and uses the pronouns “he”, “she”, “they,” etc.

20 Tone The tone of a literary work is the writer’s attitude toward his or her audience and subject. The tone can often be described by a single adjective, such as formal or informal, serious or playful, bitter or ironic, etc.

21 Mood Mood, is the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. Often the mood can be described in a single word, such as lighthearted, frightening, eerie, or despairing.

22 Imagery Imagery is the descriptive or figurative language used in literature to create word pictures for the reader. These pictures, or images, are created by details of: sight sound taste touch smell

23 Dialogue A dialogue is a conversation between characters that may reveal their traits and advance the action of a narrative.

24 Diction Diction is your choice and arrangement of words.
Diction is influenced by audience, purpose, and occasion. Your diction may be casual, formal, technical, simple, or complex. Examples: Formal Diction “To my horror, I realized that I had absentmindedly mailed the urgent letter without a stamp.” Casual Diction Oops, I must have goofed and forgotten to put a stamp on that!

25 Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is the use in a literary work of clues that suggest events that will happen later in the story.

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