Presentation on theme: "Hinduism Main Idea Objectives:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hinduism Main Idea Objectives: The religion of Hinduism developed and evolved over a long time in India, giving rise to a variety of beliefs and practices and to other religions, including Jainism.Objectives:Explore the basic teachings of Hinduism.Identify the sacred texts and religious practices of Hinduism. Investigate the teachings of Jainism.
2 Basic Teachings of Hinduism One of the world’s oldest religions, Hinduism, is practiced by most people in India today. Hinduism evolved over thousands of years and was influenced by the cultures and traditions of many peoples. However a few fundamental teachings are shared by nearly all Hindus.Among most basic tenets of Hinduism, belief in Brahman, eternal being that created, preserves worldBrahman all-encompassingMany believe human mind incapable of understandingBrahmanHindus believe each person has atman, soul, aspect of BrahmanAtman shapes personality, cannot be destroyed, even by deathDevas, manifestations of Brahman, active in world, helping maintain order in natureAtmanThree devas- Brahma, Vishnu, Siva -are particularly influential. Some believe in thousands; others worship only one as the true manifestation of Brahman.
3 Rebirth and Salvation Pattern of Life Hindus believe universe, everyone in it, part of continual pattern of birth, death, and rebirthAfter death atman reborn in process called reincarnation, or samsaraNew LifeNature of person’s new life shaped by karma—sum effect of deeds, actionsGood karma, reincarnated to better station in life; bad karma, lower station in lifeUltimate goal of human existence, moksha, escape from cycle of rebirthDharmaWith moksha, atman leaves world, reunites fully with BrahmanTo achieve moksha is to fulfill one’s dharma—spiritual duties, obligationsBy fulfilling dharma, one creates good karma, breaks free from rebirth cycle
5 Sacred Texts and Practices Much of Hinduism’s evolution stemmed from a number of sacred writings produced over centuries.Teachings, practices based on many texts, most sorted into one of three categoriesThe VedasLater writings inspired by the VedasSacred epicsThe Vedas, sacred hymns of praise, among earliest sacred texts of HinduismSacred TextsName means “knowledge” in SanskritHindus consider Vedas to contain eternal knowledge not written by humans, revealed to them by BrahmanParts of Vedas date back more than 3,000 yearsConsidered core of Hinduism even todayThe Vedas
6 JainismNew Religion500 BC, group of Hindus broke away, founded new religion called JainismLed by teacher Mahavira, Jains thought most Hindus put too much emphasis on ritualRitual UnnecessaryJains thought ritual unnecessaryPeople could achieve moksha by giving up worldly things, carefully controlling actionsNonviolenceCentral to Jain teaching, idea of ahimsa, nonviolenceMost Hindus also practiced ahimsa, but not to same extentJains carefully avoid harming living creatures, are usually vegetarians
7 Social Structure Social Structure Varnas Castes Social Hierarchy According to oldest of the Vedas, the Rigveda, Vedic society divided into four social classes, varnasEach played particular role in societyPeople of four varnas created from body of single beingSocial StructurePart of body from which each varna created tied to its dutiesBrahmins came from mouth, source of speech, wisdom; were priestsKshatriyas: warriors, rulersVaisyas: common people, farmersSudras: servantsVarnasOver centuries, four varnas of Vedic period divided into hundreds of smaller castesMembership in caste determined what jobs one could hold, whom one could marryCastesSocial hierarchy developed, some castes had more privileges than othersNot everyone belonged to a casteUntouchables had no protection of caste law, could perform only jobs that other castes did notSocial Hierarchy
9 Buddhism Main Idea Objectives: Buddhism, which teaches people that they can escape the suffering of the world through the Buddha’s teachings, developed in India and spread to other parts of Asia and the world.Objectives:Explore how the early life of the Buddha lead to the beginnings of Buddhism.Recognize the major teachings of Buddhism.Identify what areas were affected by the spread of Buddhism.
10 The Teachings of Buddhism After enlightenment achieved, Siddhartha Gautama or the Buddha meditated at Bodh Gaya seven weeksSet out to spread to others what he had learnedLessons became basic teachings of BuddhismAmong ideas learned in meditation, central truths, called Four Noble TruthsBuddhist BeliefsSuffering part of human lifeSuffering from people’s desires for pleasure, material goodsOvercoming desires during life eventually brings end to sufferingDesires can be overcome by following Eightfold PathFour Noble Truths
11 Eightfold Path Series of Steps Leading to Enlightenment, Salvation Right view, or accepting the reality of the Four Noble TruthsRight attitude, or striving for moderation in all thingsRight speech, avoiding lies, boasts, and hurtful wordsRight action, or treating others fairlyRight livelihood, avoiding jobs that could bring harm to othersRight effort, or constantly trying to improve oneselfRight mindfulness, or remaining aware of world around oneRight concentration, or ignoring temptation and discomfort while meditating
12 The Dharmacakra, "Wheel of Dharma", a symbol for the 8 Fold Path
13 NirvanaThe Buddha taught that those who followed Eightfold Path could attain nirvanaState of perfect peace in which soul freed from suffering foreverThose not attaining nirvana reborn to live through cycle of suffering againBasic teachings of Eightfold Path, Middle Way—living in moderation, avoiding extremes of comfort, discomfort in search for nirvana
14 The Spread of BuddhismUnlike Hinduism, which largely remained an Indian religion, Buddhism spread into other parts of the world. Today, more than 350 million people are Buddhists, most of them concentrated in Asia. Relatively few people in India are Buddhists today.Buddhist community in India grew throughout Buddha’s lifeFollowers spread teachings after Buddha’s deathTeachings not written down until first century BC; helped preserve, spread teachings throughout IndiaBuddhism in India200s BC, Buddhism reached peak in India during reign of emperor AshokaAshoka became Buddhist, helped spread Buddhism into all parts of IndiaAshokaAshoka also encouraged missionaries to carry the Buddha’s message to lands outside of India.
15 Buddhism Beyond India Traders Ashoka sent missionaries to Sri Lanka, large island off India’s southern coast, and north to lands along Himalayas, east into lands of Southeast AsiaBuddhism took firm hold in kingdoms that eventually became Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, islands of IndonesiaTradersTrade also helped spread Buddhism beyond India200s BC, merchants traveling routes from India to Central Asia introduced Buddhist teachingsTraders from Central, Southeast Asia took Buddhist teachings into China, slowly spreading, blending with native Chinese philosophies
16 Changing Buddhism As Buddhism encountered other religious traditions outside of India it continued to change and develop. Because of this blending, various smaller traditions developed within Theravada and Mahayana a branch of Mahayana known as --Zen emphasizes self-discipline and meditation. Buddhism today is a very diverse religion with a wide range of adherents and practices
18 Is Buddhism a Religion?The Dalai Lama states: "From one viewpoint, Buddhism is a religion, from another viewpoint Buddhism is a science of mind and not a religion. Buddhism can be a bridge between these two sides. Therefore, with this conviction I try to have closer ties with scientists, mainly in the fields of cosmology, psychology, neurobiology and physics. In these fields there are insights to share, and to a certain extent we can work together.”