Presentation on theme: "Origins of Hinduism Ancient India. Indian Society Divides As Aryan society became more complex, it began to divide into groups, usually along the lines."— Presentation transcript:
Indian Society Divides As Aryan society became more complex, it began to divide into groups, usually along the lines of occupation. In time, strict rules on how groups interacted became a defining part of Indian society.
The Varnas According to the Vedas, there were 4 main varnas or social classes. Brahmins = Priests Kshatriyas = Rulers Vaisyas = farmers, craftsmen, traders. Sudras = laborers
The Caste System As the rules of society got stricter, the varnas would divide into many more creating the caste system. This would divide society into groups based on a person’s birth, wealth, or occupation. At it high point there was as many as 3,000 separate castes in India.
The Caste System The caste one was born into determined his place in society. Over time, individual castes could gain or lose favor and in rare cases, and individual could change castes.
The Caste System Women and men both belonged to caste and early in Aryan society had most of the same rights as men did – for instance, ownership of land. Over time laws were passed to restrict these rights.
The Caste System By the end of the Aryan era, a group formed outside of the caste system, the untouchables. As the name might suggest, people that were part of this group were given the worst of jobs and were on the bottom of the social ladder – one they would not leave.
Caste Rules To keep the classes distinct, Aryans developed rules for the castes. You could not marry outside of your caste and even interaction such as eating with other castes was forbidden. People who broke rules would be banned from their homes and castes and make them untouchables.
Brahmanism Religion was important to the Aryans even before they reached India. Since Aryan priests were known and Brahmins, their religion is referred to as Brahminism.
The Vedas Aryan religion is based on the Vedas. There are 4 Vedas, each containing readings and rituals.The earliest of the Vedas is the Rigveda dating back to 1000 BC.
Later Vedic Texts Brahmins would write their thoughts on the Vedas and compiled the Vedic texts. One set describes religious rituals, another secret rituals and the final the reflections of priests and students.
Hinduism Develops The Vedas and other Vedic texts influenced religion in India for centuries. As time went forward, ideas from Persian culture and Central Asia blended in with Aryan religion to create the religion of Hinduism, the largest religion in India today.
Hindu Beliefs Hindus believe in many gods with three main gods – Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer. They also believe that all gods belong to one universal spirit – Brahman.
Life and Rebirth Hindu teachings state everyone has a soul or atman inside them. This soul holds the personality and qualities that make them who they are. The ultimate goal is to return their souls to Brahman.
Life and Rebirth Hindus believe that all souls will eventually join Brahman as he is the only reality – the rest of life is illusion. Hindus believe that souls are reborn many times in this quest to join Brahman. This rebirth is known as reincarnation
Hinduism and the Caste System According to the tenets of Hinduism, a person that dies is reborn to a new body. The type of body they are reborn into is based upon the life they lived before. Karma is built on the good or bad deeds of a persons previous life and will move them up or down in castes. Each person has a dharma or spiritual duties assigned to them based on their position in life. People accepting their positions helps to preserve the caste system.
Groups react to Hinduism Although Hinduism is widely followed in India, there was some disagreement from some. The Jains and the Siksh are two groups with different beleifs that have grown in India.
Jainism Based on the teachings of Mahavira, Jainism is based on 4 principles Injure no life Tell the truth Do not steal Own no property They also practice nonviolence They are also vegeterians, part of harm no life.
Sikhism Sikhism is based on the teachings of Guru Nanak. His teachings blended the religions of Hinduism and Islam as well as others. Sikhism believes in one God. The goal of Sikhism is to reunite with God after death.
Sikhism To reunite with God, one must find enlightenment and this may take several lifetimes, hence they believe in reincarnation. Sikhs believe one should live truthfully and treat all people equally despite gender, class or any other factor.
Sikhism Sikhs pray several times a day and wear 5 items at all time as signs of their religion. Long hair Small comb Steel bracelet Sword Special undergarments + men wear turbans
To sum up … Exit: What are similar ideas or beliefs of the different religions of India? Stay tuned next time for Origins of Buddhism