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Hinduism & Buddhism.

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Presentation on theme: "Hinduism & Buddhism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hinduism & Buddhism

2 Overview of Hinduism Collection of religious beliefs developed about 1500 BC Cannot be traced to one founder or people Vedic Religion of Aryan? Harappan belief system? Mix of both? Regardless, all elements were in place by 500 BC Based off interpretations of Vedas & Mahabharata Vedas – sacred hymns Maha = epic stories (like Homer)

3 II. Caste System Complex & rigid social system dividing people into sealed groups called castes (job) People divided into varnas (aspects of Purusha) Brahmins (priests) Kshatriyas (warriors, rulers) Vaishyas (farmers, merchants) Sudras (non-Aryan peasants) Harijan (untouchables)

4 Caste System Caste defines who you are
Born into it Marry within it Die within it Almost impossible to move up caste within one lifetime Everybody knew what caste people were in Relations with other castes No one dealt w/ harijan Very respectful up caste Very condescending down caste

5 Beliefs of Hinduism Desire moksha Individual soul = Atman Brahman
Liberation from cycle of birth and rebirth Above time, space – the stilling of all passions and desires Individual soul = Atman Brahman The source of all existence At moksha, atman unifies w/ Brahman Goal never achieved in one lifetime!

6 Beliefs of Hinduism Reincarnation
New personality develops in each life, based on past experiences Part of original person is constantly present throughout successive lives

7 Beliefs of Hinduism Karma Atman’s good and bad deeds
Everything one does influences one’s destiny and possibility of moving up the incarnation ladder Effects caste & wealth in future lives Good karma = good fortune Current station in life is determined by prior good & bad karma of prior lives

8 Beliefs of Hinduism Each caste has dharma
Rights, obligations & duties of caste, within social order Be the best brahmin / kshatriya / whatever you can be Failure to do dharma leads to regression down caste system If one does dharma, one will have good karma, and will be reincarnated to a higher caste, eventually reaching moksha

9 Brahman is three major gods in one
(some depictions of Hindu gods)

10 Brahma = Creator: created universe, first humans

11 Vishnu: Protector = preserver of universe; most popular aspect of Brahman

12 Shiva: Destroyer = destroys evil and sorrow, including world, when it is evil

13 Buddhism

14 Overview of Buddhism Siddhartha Guatama Son of a rich warrior prince
Father isolated him from unhappiness, need on his estate Siddhartha escaped 3x, saw poor, cruelty Made him question, reject the physical world and search for enlightenment

15 Overview of Buddhism Studied with different religious leaders
Fasted, meditated Realized that life of a hermit would kill him Finally emerged from studies, meditation as the Buddha (“Enlightened One”) Realized that moderation – the Middle Path – between hedonism, extreme denial, was best path

16 Buddhist Beliefs The Four Noble Truths
All life is suffering and sorrow Cause of suffering & sorrow is craving for happiness / sadness, delight / pain (selfish desires) End suffering and sadness by overcoming the selfish desires. By giving it up, you will free yourself from it End selfish desires by following the Eightfold Path.

17 The Eightfold Path 1 8 2 3 7 4 6 5 1. Right Belief 2. Right Purpose
3. Right Speech 4. Right Conduct 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Meditation 8 2 3 7 4 6 5

18 Buddhist Beliefs Goal of Buddhists = nirvana Reach the “Middle Way”
Extinction and freedom from cycle of suffering, death and rebirth Reach the “Middle Way” Follow the Eightfold Path Meditate Moderation in all things Believed in reincarnation but rejected caste system Also rejected idea of personal god Rejected social, sexual distinctions; embraced egalitarian organization

19 Buddhist Followers At first, word spread by wandering monks
Spread to China; today, about 300 million Buddhists worldwide Never caught on in India


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