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Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism

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1 Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism
Religions of India Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism

2 Hinduism Origins in the Vedas brought by the Aryans.
Aryans had no written language. Passed epics down word of mouth. Vedas = “Books of Knowledge” Oldest is the Riga-Veda – it is one of the oldest religious text still used. Vedas brought a complex social order to India known as the varnas.

3 Varnas Aryans brought a complex social system with them.
Kshatriyas – warriors Brahmins – priests Vaisyas – merchants, artisans, and farmers. Sudras – unskilled laborers and servants. Only warriors and priests were allowed to recite the vedas.

4 Varnas Our a period of time, the rituals associated with the vedas became more complex and secret. By 500 BCE, the varnas became more rigid. The varnas were subdivided into jati. Jati were formed according to occupations. These formed the caste system.

5 Concept of Duty The vedas outlined the dharma or duties of the male members of each jati. Mahabharata and Bhagavad-Gita outlines the concept. Dharma means doing what is proper for one’s age. This forms the foundation of Hinduism.

6 Hinduism Not founded on the teachings of one person.
Religion of many deities. BCE, a collection of writings and philosophies were reflected in a text known as the Upanishads. The Upanishads tell of a universal spirit present within all life. All living things have souls. All souls are part of one eternal spirit – The Brahman Nerguna.

7 Hinduism To achieve unity with the Brahman Neguna, a person must separate themselves from material things. Self-denial – fasting and the practice of yoga helps a person achieve a state of tranquility.

8 Hinduism – Cycle of Rebirth
Reincarnation – soul passes through many lifetimes to achieve oneness with the universe. Cycle of rebirth is controlled by the karma. The way you live your life will determine what you will be in the next life. By doing good, you become good, by doing evil, you become evil.

9 Cycle of Rebirth Out of that arose the attitude of non-violence against all living things. This is known as ahimsa – protection of all humans, animals, insects, and plants. The cycle of rebirth continues until the person achieves moksha – a release from the pain and suffering of rebirth.

10 Hindu Deities Brahma – The Creator Vishnu – The Preserver
Siva – The Destroyer Ganesha – God of good fortune

11 Brahma The Creator

12 Vishnu The Preserver

13 Siva The Destroyer

14 Ganesha God of Good Fortune

15 Jainism A religious sect based upon Hinduism.
Around 500 BCE, a Hindu teacher named Mahavira rejected the strict caste system and sacrifice. Jains believe in the sacredness of all life. They use brooms to sweep their paths to avoid stepping on insects. Jains also refuse to farm for fear of killing insects with plows.

16 Buddhism Siddharta Gautama founded Buddhism in the 5th century BCE.
He was born and raised a kshatriya prince. He lived a sheltered life until one day when he toured his estate. Siddharta was shocked at the pain and suffering he observed.

17 Buddhism At age 29, he left his wife and new born son to find out why people suffered and how suffering could be ended. For 7 years, he lived as a hermit seeking the answer through fasting and self-denial. One day as he was meditating under a tree, he gained an awareness that gave him the answer he was looking for. His followers began calling him “Buddha” or “enlightened one.”

18 The Enlightened One

19 The Four Noble Truths All people suffer and know sorrow.
People suffer because their desires bind them to a cycle of rebirth. People could end their suffering by eliminating their desires. One could eliminate their desires by following the Eightfold Path.

20 Eightfold Path Know the truth. Resist evil.
Say nothing to hurt others. Respect life. Work for the good of others. Free your mind of evil. Control your thoughts. Practice meditation.

21 Buddhism By avoiding extremes and following the Eightfold Path, a person could attain nirvana or a state of freedom from rebirth. Nirvana is a place of extinction. In nirvana, a person becomes one with the universe. Buddha also rejected the caste system. He believed that a person’s place in life depended on the person, not his birth status.

22 Spread of Buddhism Monks carried the religion to other parts of Asia.
As the religion spread, disagreements broke out among the followers. Theravada – S and SE Asia. Closely follows the original teachings of the Buddha. Mahayana – China, Korea, and Japan. Followers view Buddha as a savior and a divine person.

23 Spread of Buddhism

24 Hinduism and Buddhism Many deities Caste system Reincarnation
Religious writings – Upanishads Mainly in India No deities Rejection of caste system 4 Noble Truths Eightfold Path Reincarnation not necessary to achieve nirvana. Buddhism spread to other regions.

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