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The Road to Independence

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1 The Road to Independence
Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa

2 The Road to Nationalism
Unrest arose throughout Africa during the period of European control. There was a strong desire in most countries for independence from foreign rule. Nationalism (a strong belief in one’s country) fed this desire and nurtured the beginning of independence.

3 Dates of independence of African nations


5 Kenya - Colonization In the 1800s, the coast of Kenya came under the control of Arab traders. The Germans and British took over next, but by the early 1900s, only the British remained in Kenya.

6 Kenya – Opposition to Colonial Rule
Upset by their loss of rights as landowners and farmers, opposition groups began to form in the 1920s. Groups of guerrillas (a small, independent military force) swore to eliminate white settlers in Kenya, as well as any Africans who sided with them. They staged a rebellion in 1956, but were crushed by military forces.

7 Kenya - Independence Finally in 1964, Kenya achieved its independence from the British Empire. Jomo Kenyatta, le,ader of the Kenyan African National Union (KNAU) became the first president. Under Kenyatta and his successor, Daniel arap Moi, the KNAU ran unopposed in elections until the 1990s.

8 Kenya - Independence There has been some improvement in the political rights of Kenya’s people, but more is needed. The country remains a multi-party state on the books, but the reality is that the KNAU is still in control of the government.


10 Nigeria – Colonization
Nigeria maintained its independence until the late 19th century (1800s) when Britain stepped in and began colonizing the area. Nigeria was a diverse nation with people and cultures from more than 250 ethnic groups.

11 Nigeria’s Ethnic Groups

12 Nigeria – Opposition to Colonial Rule
In 1923, a movement began in Nigeria to set up the country as a self-governing member of the British Commonwealth. However, another nationalist group wanted complete freedom from British rule. Both military and peaceful groups struggled for Nigerian Independence.

13 Nigeria - Independence
The federal elections in 1959 gave the nationalistic groups enough votes to form a government. In 1960, an independent government was established in Nigeria. At first, it was one of the most stable governments of the new African countries.

14 Nigeria - Independence
By the end of a decade, though, a civil war broke out between the Christian south and the Muslim north. Because of clashes between ethnic groups, Nigeria suffered from violence and military rule until 1999, when a democratic government was established.

15 Nigeria - Independence
Nigeria has the potential to have great wealth from their oil supplies. However, because of corruption in the government this resource has not been developed. As a result, Nigeria must rely on foreign aid and foreign supplies for their people.

16 South Africa

17 South Africa - Colonization
South Africa was colonized by the British and Dutch in the 17th century. A policy of white superiority first became visible in 1685 when a law was passed forbidding whites and Africans to marry in a territory called Cape Colony. When Britain established the dominion of the Union of South Africa in 1910, power was given only to whites.

18 South Africa - Apartheid
The 1948 election brought a new political party to power in South Africa and the policy of apartheid took a strong hold in the country. Basically, apartheid separated the country into whites and non-whites. In 1948, whites owned 80% of the land, even though they represented only 10% of the population.


20 South Africa - Homelands
In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act created “homelands” for black South Africans, who were assigned to artificially created parts of South Africa. The classifications were frequently inaccurate, and as a result of this law, 9 million South Africans were excluded from any role in governing South Africa.


22 South Africa - Independence
Finally in 1961, the South Africans voted for and gained their independence from Britain. It took years of protests, several more decades, and a change of government leaders before blacks began to have a role in the government of South Africa.

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