Unit 2— Africa’s Nationalist & Independence Movements!
NIGERA’S Nationalist Movement Nigeria Is home to many different ethnic groups. After the Berlin Conference Great Britain was given control of Nigeria. The British separated Nigeria into TWO colonies. Many ethnic groups were opposed to being part of the same country. These divisions between ethnic groups led to different treatment by Brits. By the 1940s, Nigerians started many groups to fight British rule. Many Nigerians admired the British because of their education in England. Nigerians believe that the only way to have rights was to be free of European rule.
Nigeria Continued These groups pushing for independence became political parties that worked for Nigerian independence. By late 1940s and 50s, the British let Nigerians elect their own government. In 1957 they elected Abubkar Tafawa Balewa as their Prime Minister On October 1, 1960 Nigeria was granted its independence from Britain.
Kenya Nationalist Movement Kenya was colonized by England & many people in Kenya disliked the British being there. In opposition to British rule they organized a group known as the Mau Mau (1952-1960). Mau Mau- a secret organization that believed the only way to win Kenyan rights and independence was through the use of force & violence. In 1954 the British mostly defeated the Mau Mau, however violence between the two groups continued until 1960. Thousands of people were killed during fighting, only about 100 were European.
Kenya Continued… Eventually, overwhelming Kenyan support for the Mau Mau led the British to grant Kenya its independence. In 1963 the British helped Kenyans hold democratic elections, they elected Jomo Kenyatta president. Kenya was once again free from foreign rule.
South Africa’s Nationalist Movement South Africa’s path to independence. In 1948, Afrikaners (people of Dutch decent) defeated English-speaking whites to win control of South Africa’s government. South Africa was ruled by both the Dutch & British people. Afrikaners established “Apartheid” --an Afrikaans word meaning “separateness” an official policy of racial discrimination & segregation. Apartheid stripped black Africans of the few rights they had & required segregation. Separation was based on race (black, white, or colored).
Homelands There were established “homelands” for blacks; Homelands were: poor, crowded areas far away from the cities where the blacks had to live. Homelands often did not have running water and electricity – (None). Black South Africans could only leave their homeland if they were going to work for a white person. Blacks forced to carry pass books (similar to a passport) at all times or they would go to prison
African National Congress (ANC) African National Congress goal was to unite people of all races (in South Africa) to fight for rights and freedoms against racism & apartheid. Nelson Mandela, a black South African, started the ANC & led it.
F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela Mandela, leader of the ANC was arrested on August 5, 1962. He was imprisoned for 27 years until he was granted his release in 1990 by F. W. de Klerk. F.W. de Klerk was South Africa’s president when N. Mandela went to jail—he helped get Mandela out of jail (he was a white man) Nelson Mandela was elected President of South Africa in 1994, he was South Africa’s first black president.