Presentation on theme: "African Nationalist Movements SS7H1b Explain how nationalism led to independence in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria."— Presentation transcript:
African Nationalist Movements SS7H1b Explain how nationalism led to independence in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria.
What is a nationalist movement? The progressive development of gaining a sense of identity with a nation
By Early 20 th Century Europe had colonized almost all of Africa Liberia and Ethiopia are the only countries that were not colonized Africans wanted to control their own governments and resources Latter part of 20 th century- African nations worked to free themselves
Kenya Mau Mau- secret society that existed from 1952-1960 Believed force would free Kenya Thousands of people killed (only 100 Europeans) After long period of fighting, Britain granted independence 1963- first democratic election- Jomo Kenyatta elected first president
Nigeria Britain given control at the Berlin Conference and made region 2 colonies Made up of many ethnic groups Groups did not want to be in the same country The division led to different treatment by the British British spent more money in the south than in the north
Nigeria cont. 1940’s- Nigerians started many groups to fight British rule These groups eventually became political parties Late 1940’s and the 1950’s- British let Nigerians elect their own government Given independence on Oct. 1, 1960 without having to fight
South Africa South Africa is controlled by Britain. Two very different nationalist movements emerge following the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. The white Afrikaner nationalist movement which is represented by the National Party, formed in January 1914. The black nationalist movement is led primarily by the African National Congress (ANC), formed in 1912.
South Africa cont. The Afrikaner nationalist movement grew in popularity over the next 30 years, playing on Afrikaner (white) resentment of the British control of most of South Africa's economy and fear of the black majority. In 1948 the National Party wins the all- white general election. The basis of the campaign that won this election was to introduce a system of “apartheid” to totally separate the races.
South Africa cont. Opposition to the “apartheid” system by the black majority is ruthlessly suppressed. It receives increasing support from the white electorate. The National Party (white) remained in power until 1994.
Questions Pretend you were born in Nigeria, South Africa, or Kenya. Explain why you might want your country to be independent from European rule. What do you want to happen when your country is independent? What kind of rule would you like to live under?