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MENTAL DISORDERS. What is a Mental Disorder?  Mental disorder- illness that affects the mind and reduces a persons ability to function, to adjust to.

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Presentation on theme: "MENTAL DISORDERS. What is a Mental Disorder?  Mental disorder- illness that affects the mind and reduces a persons ability to function, to adjust to."— Presentation transcript:


2 What is a Mental Disorder?  Mental disorder- illness that affects the mind and reduces a persons ability to function, to adjust to change, or get along with others.  Could affect a persons ability to study, keep a job, or make friends

3 Recognizing Mental Disorders  Abnormal thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are signs/symptoms of a mental disorder  Behaviors that are highly unusual (i.e. washing your hands over and over if already clean)

4 Causes of Mental Disorders  Sometimes has a single cause; more often a combination of factors are involved  Physical Factors  Heredity  Early Experiences  Recent Experiences

5 Physical Factors  Damage to the brain  Growth or tumor in the brain  Injury/ Infection to the brain  Exposure to poison/lead  Prolonged use of drugs or alcohol

6 Heredity  May inherit a tendency toward a mental disorder  Does NOT mean the person will have the disorder  Greater risk if the events in their life act as a trigger

7 Early Experiences  Negative Experiences that occur early on in life  Ex. Neglected child; child that is abused in any way

8 Recent Experiences  Experts believe that recent experiences are more likely than early experiences to trigger a mental disorders  Ex. Death of a loved one

9 ADHD  Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  Difficulty in school, home, social settings  When treated with medication, the results are immediate and dramatic  Remember: Just because someone has trouble sitting still or paying attention from time to time doesn’t mean they have ADHD

10 ADHD (cont.)  Signs/Symptoms:  Doesn’t pay attention to details  Makes careless mistakes  Doesn’t seem to listen  Disorganized  Forgets to do daily activities  Easily distracted  Difficulty following directions

11 Anxiety Disorders  Anxiety: fear caused by a source that you cannot identify or a source that doesn’t pose as much threat as you think  Feelings are usually normal and short- lived  ex: anxious before a final, school dance, tryouts

12 Anxiety Disorders (cont.)  Anxiety disorder: anxiety that persists for a long time and interferes with daily living  In any six month period, 10% of Americans have an anxiety disorder  Examples:  Generalized Anxiety Disorder  Phobias  Panic Attacks  Obsessive Compulsive Disorders  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

13 Anxiety Disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder  Displays Intense worry, fears, or anxiety most days for at least 6 months  NO single specific source  Occur in different situation  Warning signs: restlessness, fatigue, trouble, falling asleep, trouble concentrating

14 Anxiety Disorders: Phobias  Phobia: anxiety related to a specific situation or object  Physical Effects: loss of breath, sweating, heart racing, nausea  Common Phobias:  Arachnophobia-fear of spiders  Aviophobia- fear of flying  Acrophobia- fear of high places  Claustrophobia- fear of small, closed in places  Ophidiophobia- fear of snakes

15 Anxiety Disorders: Panic Attacks  Feeling intense fear and strong desire to leave or run away  After one attack, tend to worry about having another/ may change their behavior  Symptoms:  Fast heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, belief you are dying, trembling, choking, nausea, dizziness, fear of losing control

16 Anxiety Disorders: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  Obsession: an unwanted thought or image that takes control of the mind  Compulsion: unreasonable need to behave in a certain way to prevent a feared outcome  Ex: constantly brushing teeth, checking to see if the door is locked, checking the stove

17 Anxiety Disorders: Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder  Surviving a life threatening event  Flashbacks/Nightmares  Intense Fear/horror  Unable to sleep  Intense Anxiety  Feeling of guilt if others survived

18 Other Mental Disorders: Mood Disorders -Experience extreme emotions that make it difficult to function well -Ex. Bipolar: shift from one emotion extreme to another (manic to depressive) -Depression: emotional state in which a person feels extremely sad and hopeless

19 Other Mental Disorders: Schizophrenia  Schizophrenia: severe disturbances in thinking, mood, awareness, and behavior  “ split-mind”- peoples minds are “split-off” or separated from reality  Rarely harmful to others  At times appear normal; at times talk to themselves, display inappropriate dress, act strangely, withdraw from others  Develop fears that are not supported by reality

20 Other Mental Disorders: Impulse Control Disorders  Cannot resist impulse or the drive to act in a way that is harmful to themselves or to others (ex. Kleptomania, gambling, uncontrolled shopping)  Interferes with work, school, family, relationships, finances

21 Other Mental Disorders: Personality Disorders  Display rigid patterns of behavior that make it difficult to get along with others  Falls into three broad groups:  Group A  Group B  Group C

22 Other Mental Disorders: Personality Disorders (cont.)  GROUP A:  Tend to be cold and distant  Cannot form close relationships  Absorbed in their own thoughts/ withdraw from reality  “paranoid” personality: overly suspicious of other people

23 Other Mental Disorders: Personality Disorders (cont.)  GROUP B:  Overly emotional/unstable  Selfish  Demanding  High value on themselves and not on others  “anti-social” personality

24 Other Mental Disorders: Personality Disorders (cont)  GROUP C:  Cannot make decisions  Strong need for the approval of others  Avoid people for fear of rejection  Need help from others to properly care for themselves  “Dependent personality”

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