Migration Defined as a long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another. Immigration: the process of individuals moving into a new country with the intention of remaining there. Emigration: The process of moving out of a particular country, usually the individual person’s country of origin.
Some Facts… Today, more than 174 million people have moved outside the country in which they were born. The number of migrants has more than doubled since 1975. The United States attracts the most migrants of all countries in the world.
With increasing immigration from developing countries into developed countries, it becomes harder to predict future population growth.
Migration Stream Pathway from a place of origin to a destination. Net in-migration= more immigrants than emigrants. Net out-migration= more emigrants than immigrants. What does this tell you about an area’s desirability?
political issues economic factors environmental issues cultural issues transportation routes What causes people to migrate?
Political Issues Armed conflicts and policies of oppressive regimes. The pilgrims, who sailed on the Mayflower to America Forced migration of Native Americans as America expanded west…TRAIL OF TEARS (Indian Removal Act of 1830)
Economic Factors Job opportunities, economic cycles of growth and recession, and cost of living. Examples: European immigrants coming to America in the early 19 th century (later generations also moved) Mid-1990s San Francisco (Before and After)
UNDERSTAND THAT: Many countries are currently experiencing large rural to urban migrations as corporate farming and increased technology have reduced the number of agricultural laborers needed in rural areas.
Environmental Issues Search for arable or fertile land Nomadic herders in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Kenya Desertification Fleeing the city Sierra Nevada range in California
Cultural Issues Cause people to move to places where they feel more at home or where they were able to take advantage of certain institutions. Post-WWII relocation of many Jewish people from Europe, the Americas, and elsewhere to Israel
Transportation Routes Enable and entice people to migrate to new areas. 17 th and 18 th century- Better ships and more reliable navigation systems made safe travel across the Atlantic a possibility 19 th century- New stagecoach routes enabled many white settlers to move westward 20 th century- Roads constructed by the Brazilian government encouraged thousands of people to leave Brazil’s densely populated southeastern coast.
Voluntary Migration Movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area- the opposite of forced migration.
Chain migration: the migration event in which individuals follow the migration path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community. Familial Religious Ethnic Cultural
Involuntary Migration (Forced Migration) The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will. Between the 15 th and 18 th centuries- Slave trade of the Colonial Period 1830-Trail of Tears
THE LARGEST FORCED MIGRATION OCCURRED WITH THE NORTH ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE, FORCING NEARLY 30 MILLION AFRICANS FROM THEIR HOMES.
Refugees People who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved. International refugees= leave country Intranational refugees= leave home but stay in country. Also referred to as internally displaced peoples.
Major regions of dislocation and refugees: Sub-Saharan Africa Rwanda, Congo, Sudan etc. Middle East Dislocation of Palestinians after the formation of the Israel. Dislocation of Kurdish people from the former Iraq Afghanistan during/after Soviet occupation in the 1980s. Europe Fall of Yugoslavia Southeast Asia Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar South Asia Pakistan, Sri Lanka