migration: the permanent long-term relocation from one place to another
voluntary migration: people have a choice to move or stay reluctant migration: less than fully voluntary, but not forced Such as… - any economic migrant - 75 million people from Europe to Americas (1835- 1935) - Indonesia: resettlement from overcrowded Java
Mexico has been the largest source of migrants to the U.S., but migrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations
Migration in 2001. The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam
forced migration: imposed relocation by one group over another causing “refugees” Ex.: - African slavery - Australian convicts - Siberian labor camps - Trail of Tears - the Holocaust - Rwanda (1994) - Darfur, Sudan (present)
internal migration: relocation within a country’s borders - Colombia (rural-urban) - Russia - China (to industrial cities) - U.S. (1800s: “Westward Ho”; 1910-1930s: “Great Migration”; today: west & south) transhumance: semi-nomadic migration
Push Factors: negative home conditions that “push” the decision to migrate (loss of job, lack of opportunities, overcrowding, famine, war, disease) Pull Factors: positive attributes perceived to exist at the new location (jobs opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, safer) place utility: degree of satisfaction with a place The decision to migrate: is it better to stay or to go?
- have short term work visas - send remittances to home country
Step migration: smaller, less extreme moves Ex.: farm to village—to small town—to major city Chain migration: an established linkage or chain for future migrants (creates a “migration field”) Migrants provide information, money, place to stay, a job for other family/friends
Channel Migration: clear pathways & travel routes are established - Ex.: The Oregon Trail
The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona
1. Most only go a short distance 2. Longer distances = bigger cities 3. It proceeds step by step 4. Most is rural to urban 5. Each flow produces a counter flow 6. Most are adults 7. Most international migrants are young males 1. Nowadays, women/girls represent 40-60% of all international migrants. 2. Mostly economic pushes and pulls.
1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person with: “a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, or nationality.” RWANDA 1994 DARFUR 2007