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migration: the permanent long-term relocation from one place to another.

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Presentation on theme: "migration: the permanent long-term relocation from one place to another."— Presentation transcript:


2 migration: the permanent long-term relocation from one place to another

3 voluntary migration: people have a choice to move or stay reluctant migration: less than fully voluntary, but not forced Such as… - any economic migrant - 75 million people from Europe to Americas (1835- 1935) - Indonesia: resettlement from overcrowded Java

4 Mexico has been the largest source of migrants to the U.S., but migrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations

5 Migration in 2001. The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam

6 forced migration: imposed relocation by one group over another causing “refugees” Ex.: - African slavery - Australian convicts - Siberian labor camps - Trail of Tears - the Holocaust - Rwanda (1994) - Darfur, Sudan (present)

7 internal migration: relocation within a country’s borders - Colombia (rural-urban) - Russia - China (to industrial cities) - U.S. (1800s: “Westward Ho”; 1910-1930s: “Great Migration”; today: west & south) transhumance: semi-nomadic migration

8 i. Political circumstances HaitiMariel Boatlift


10 Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.

11 Guatemalans Vietnamese Rwandans Bosnians

12 Irish Population 1872 The Irish Potato Famine

13 Pakistan-India PartitionRussian Jews arriving in Israel The Mormon Trek


15 Push Factors: negative home conditions that “push” the decision to migrate (loss of job, lack of opportunities, overcrowding, famine, war, disease) Pull Factors: positive attributes perceived to exist at the new location (jobs opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, safer) place utility: degree of satisfaction with a place The decision to migrate: is it better to stay or to go?

16 - have short term work visas - send remittances to home country

17 Step migration: smaller, less extreme moves Ex.: farm to village—to small town—to major city Chain migration: an established linkage or chain for future migrants (creates a “migration field”) Migrants provide information, money, place to stay, a job for other family/friends

18 Channel Migration: clear pathways & travel routes are established - Ex.: The Oregon Trail

19 The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona

20 1. Most only go a short distance 2. Longer distances = bigger cities 3. It proceeds step by step 4. Most is rural to urban 5. Each flow produces a counter flow 6. Most are adults 7. Most international migrants are young males 1. Nowadays, women/girls represent 40-60% of all international migrants. 2. Mostly economic pushes and pulls.

21 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person with: “a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, or nationality.” RWANDA 1994 DARFUR 2007


23 The conflict in Darfur has led to the death of at least 350,000 and the displacement of 1.8 million people.

24 A Darfur rebel fighter Members of a Janjaweed militia group


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