Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to the Industrial Revolution An Overview
2 Shift from the Agrarian World In England – majority of people were farmers in rural areasAgricultural Revolution – New farming methods inventedEnclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public landElaborate on what farming and food production was like in England at this time. Farming was done on small plots of land leased to the farmers. If the farmers did’t live on the land, then they lived in villages near the land.Subsistence Living!
3 Shift from the Small Farm World Wealthy landowners started buying land. Farmers pushed off the landJethro Tull – horse drawn seed drill - efficientMore food produced = population increaseIn 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million.Now unemployed small farmers go to the big citiesMore food
4 EnclosuresIn England in 1700 the average sheep weighed 20 lbs. By 1800 the average sheep weighed 40 lbs. What created the change was that farmers could produce enough food to feed not only themselves, but their livestock as well. Larger sheep mean more wool and more meat! This was also done by increased breeding techniques.
6 Textile Industry Takes Off Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products laterWork completed by entire familyEach family member had a job to do
7 The Family Institution FYIHow many people are in your family?What is the average expectancy for females and males living today?Boys: Are you going to do what your father does when you grow up?Girls: Are you going to be housewives or have a career?Ask the questions on the slide to the students. The following are possible answers:Will vary per student72 year-male, 82 years-femaleNo. They probably will not plan on doing the same occupation as their dad.Many more opportunities are available to women today compared to the 1700’s.
9 FYI Family Life: Before Industrialization Living conditions were hard for most peopleLife revolved around the success of the crops.Most people were malnourished and susceptible to diseases.Frequent diseases and epidemics kept the population relatively stable.Life expectancy was about years.Marriage and child bearing occurred during the teenage period.By 1900 Life expectancy was up to 47Tell the girls in the class (probably around 15-16) they would be on their second child by a man picked out by their fathers. And that 1 of 4 most likely would have died in childbirth. (And we want to go back in time to simpler lifestyle)
10 Textile Industry Takes Off Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including:Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave clothThe Spinning Jenny
11 Textile Industry Takes Off 1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frameThe Spinning Jenny
12 Textile Industry Takes Off 1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cottonPlans for the Cotton Gin
13 Young Girl Working in Textile Factory As industrialization spread, factories employed children as young as 5 or 6 to work 12 hour days.
14 Textile Industry Takes Off These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factoryPlans for the Cotton Gin
15 Look Around Us, What Changed? The Industrial RevolutionDefinitionthe shift from making goods by hand to making them by machineThe Industrial Revolution creates great wealth but also great social and economic inequality, prompting a backlash of political, social, and economic reforms.The roots of the Industrial Revolution was a gradual process. “Roots of the Industrial Revolution could be found in the following: (1) The Commercial Revolution ( ), which spurred the great economic growth of Europe, brought about by the Age of Discovery and Exploration, which in turn helped solidify the doctrines of mercantilism; (2) the effect of the Scientific Revolution, which produced the first wave of mechanical inventions and technological advances; (3) the increase in population in Europe from 140 million people in 1750 to 266 million people by the mid-part of the nineteenth century; (4) the political and social revolutions of the nineteenth century, which gave rise to the “middle class,” and provided the leadership for the economic revolution.” Taken from AP European History, REA Association, p. 92
16 Why Britain Industrializes First Land (raw material, natural resources)Labor (skilled and unskilled labor force, management)Capital (money for investments)Entrepreneurs (People with an vision and the ability to make it happen)
17 Land 1715-1850 Natural resources large amounts of coal and iron a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy tradeColonies – raw materials
18 Labor An increase in population created a surplus of workers Enclosed farms pushed farmers off the land and into the citiesUnskilled laborers were needed to run the machinesMiddle management positions (factory managers, accountants, equipment managers)British workers were generally more skilled, earned higher wages, and had more income to buy more goods and services than anyone else living in Continental Europe. Moreover, technology pushed people from the farms to the cities. This sense of desperation to survive led many to try new means of economic production, which generally included being forced to work in environments that were foreign to them- the factory.
19 CapitalA strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to investBanks gave loans to invest in new machinery and to expand operationsEngland also had a thriving share of international trading partners which provided capital for investments in factories and other forms of economic activities in England. Britain was also a creditor nation and its capital allowed its citizens the flexibility to experiment with loans that could potentially increase its production output.
20 EntrepreneursPeople with a vision who sees a need the public will respond toPeople with skills and knowledge to gather the needed raw material, recruit and organize workers, and arrange for capital and investments
21 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machinesInventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and betterContinuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growthInventions in one area often led to inventions in othersTransportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced
22 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution Cities begin to dominate the western worldCreates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle classPoor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movementsNeed for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism)