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Introduction to the Industrial Revolution

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1 Introduction to the Industrial Revolution
An Overview

2 Shift from the Agrarian World
In England – majority of people were farmers in rural areas Agricultural Revolution – New farming methods invented Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land Elaborate on what farming and food production was like in England at this time. Farming was done on small plots of land leased to the farmers. If the farmers did’t live on the land, then they lived in villages near the land. Subsistence Living!

3 Shift from the Small Farm World
Wealthy landowners started buying land. Farmers pushed off the land Jethro Tull – horse drawn seed drill - efficient More food produced = population increase In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million. Now unemployed small farmers go to the big cities More food

4 Enclosures In England in 1700 the average sheep weighed 20 lbs. By 1800 the average sheep weighed 40 lbs. What created the change was that farmers could produce enough food to feed not only themselves, but their livestock as well. Larger sheep mean more wool and more meat! This was also done by increased breeding techniques.

5 Jethro Tull: Science Guy or British rock band?

6 Textile Industry Takes Off
Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later Work completed by entire family Each family member had a job to do

7 The Family Institution
FYI How many people are in your family? What is the average expectancy for females and males living today? Boys: Are you going to do what your father does when you grow up? Girls: Are you going to be housewives or have a career? Ask the questions on the slide to the students. The following are possible answers: Will vary per student 72 year-male, 82 years-female No. They probably will not plan on doing the same occupation as their dad. Many more opportunities are available to women today compared to the 1700’s.


9 FYI Family Life: Before Industrialization
Living conditions were hard for most people Life revolved around the success of the crops. Most people were malnourished and susceptible to diseases. Frequent diseases and epidemics kept the population relatively stable. Life expectancy was about years. Marriage and child bearing occurred during the teenage period. By 1900 Life expectancy was up to 47 Tell the girls in the class (probably around 15-16) they would be on their second child by a man picked out by their fathers. And that 1 of 4 most likely would have died in childbirth. (And we want to go back in time to simpler lifestyle)

10 Textile Industry Takes Off
Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including: Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth The Spinning Jenny

11 Textile Industry Takes Off
1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together 1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame The Spinning Jenny

12 Textile Industry Takes Off
1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth 1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton Plans for the Cotton Gin

13 Young Girl Working in Textile Factory
As industrialization spread, factories employed children as young as 5 or 6 to work 12 hour days.

14 Textile Industry Takes Off
These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory Plans for the Cotton Gin

15 Look Around Us, What Changed?
The Industrial Revolution Definition the shift from making goods by hand to making them by machine The Industrial Revolution creates great wealth but also great social and economic inequality, prompting a backlash of political, social, and economic reforms. The roots of the Industrial Revolution was a gradual process. “Roots of the Industrial Revolution could be found in the following: (1) The Commercial Revolution ( ), which spurred the great economic growth of Europe, brought about by the Age of Discovery and Exploration, which in turn helped solidify the doctrines of mercantilism; (2) the effect of the Scientific Revolution, which produced the first wave of mechanical inventions and technological advances; (3) the increase in population in Europe from 140 million people in 1750 to 266 million people by the mid-part of the nineteenth century; (4) the political and social revolutions of the nineteenth century, which gave rise to the “middle class,” and provided the leadership for the economic revolution.” Taken from AP European History, REA Association, p. 92

16 Why Britain Industrializes First
Land (raw material, natural resources) Labor (skilled and unskilled labor force, management) Capital (money for investments) Entrepreneurs (People with an vision and the ability to make it happen)

17 Land 1715-1850 Natural resources large amounts of coal and iron
a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade Colonies – raw materials

18 Labor An increase in population created a surplus of workers
Enclosed farms pushed farmers off the land and into the cities Unskilled laborers were needed to run the machines Middle management positions (factory managers, accountants, equipment managers) British workers were generally more skilled, earned higher wages, and had more income to buy more goods and services than anyone else living in Continental Europe. Moreover, technology pushed people from the farms to the cities. This sense of desperation to survive led many to try new means of economic production, which generally included being forced to work in environments that were foreign to them- the factory.

19 Capital A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest Banks gave loans to invest in new machinery and to expand operations England also had a thriving share of international trading partners which provided capital for investments in factories and other forms of economic activities in England. Britain was also a creditor nation and its capital allowed its citizens the flexibility to experiment with loans that could potentially increase its production output.

20 Entrepreneurs People with a vision who sees a need the public will respond to People with skills and knowledge to gather the needed raw material, recruit and organize workers, and arrange for capital and investments

21 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced

22 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
Cities begin to dominate the western world Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle class Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism)

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