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Industrial Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Revolution

The transformation of society from agricultural and cottage industries to urban factory life because of new inventions

3 Agricultural Revolution = “More Food”

4 Agricultural Revolution = “More Food”
Crop Rotation – Fewer farmers needed Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; certain crops revitalized soil

5 Enclosed Farms – Increased farming efficiency
Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land

6 Livestock Breeding – More productive
Average Weight of Steer 1700: 370 lbs 1786: 840 lbs Average Weight of Sheep 1700: 28 lbs 1786: 100 lbs

7 New inventions - “ Increased productivity and lowered prices of food”
Jethro Tull’s seed drill was one of the inventions which helped improve agricultural production and led to the need for fewer workers on the farm.

8 More food produced = population increase Cheaper prices for food
More Productive – Meat and Wheat = less starvation More food produced = population increase Cheaper prices for food Better nutrition (improved health care) In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to over 200 million Europe Population

9 Smaller farmers pushed off of land to work as wage laborers for various land owners or to move to the growing cities

10 Textile Industry Takes Off
Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later

11 Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including:
Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth

12 1767 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together

13 1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame

14 1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth

15 1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton

16 These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory

17 New Inventions -“Increased Productivity and Lowered Prices”
Advances in Steam “Factory Machines to Trains” James Watt developed the first practical steam engine in 1765

18 Britain Industrializes First
TRANSPORTATION Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade

19 Britain Industrializes First
NATURAL RESOURCES Many natural resources available in Britain, including large amounts of coal, iron and water

20 Britain Industrializes First
CAPITAL ($) A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest Banking and shipping industries already in place

21 Britain Industrializes First
MARKETS “PLACES TO SELL” Colonial empire provided much needed raw materials and markets British Empire 1800s

22 Britain Industrializes First
LABOR SUPPLY Britain had a large population which allowed them to build many factories Labor wages were low because there were so many people moving from the farms to the cities

23 Britain Industrializes First
SOCIAL CLIMATE Highly educated population Very science minded, innovative middle class Scientific Revolution in England had prepared the way for inventions to be applied to industry

24 Britain Industrializes First
All of these factors resulted in the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

25 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better – Products cost much less Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced

26 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
Cities begin to dominate the western world**** Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential MIDDLE CLASS (Standard of Living & ) Poor working and living conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements (LABOR UNIONS) Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism)

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