2 Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution (IR) began in Great Britain and spread to parts of Europe and the United States.Five questions to consider:What was the Age of Industry?What was the Industrial Revolution?Why did the IR begin in Great Britain?What impact did the IR have on the way people worked?How did the IR spread from Great Britain to Europe and the United States?
3 What was the “Age of Industry”? (1750s- early1900s) New inventions in agriculture and industry lead to big economic and social changes in Europe and the United States.Modernized/Changed the World!Influences the way we live today.Dependent on Natural Resources (Iron, coal, rivers, natural harbors).
4 What was The Industrial Revolution? Begins when power driven machines in factories replaced the work done by humans and animals.Shift from a farming economy centered in country to industrial economy based in urban cities.Leads to huge changes in the way goods are produced…Mass production.1700s: One weaver worked hours to produce one yard of cloth.1800s: One worker operating a machine in a textile mill produced 50 times more cotton in the same amount of time!
5 Why did the IR begin in Britain? Impact of the Agriculture Revolution:Due to the enclosure movement, wealthy landowners obtained more land.New agricultural innovations allowed more food to be grown with less workers…more efficient.Led to the development of:Capital (money): wealthy landowners have more money to invest in new techniques/industries.Large labor force was created: former agricultural workers looking for jobs in towns and cities.
6 Technological Innovations in the Textile Industry
7 James Hargreaves (1760s)- Spinning Jenny-produce yarn.
8 Richard Arkwright (1768)-Water frame-a spinning machine powered by water
9 John Kay (1733): Flying shuttle - used for weaving cloth from thread or yarn
10 Samuel Crompton (1779) Spinning Mule- Spinning Jenny powered by water)
12 How the IR change the way people worked… Domestic System (Before IR):Merchants hired workers to produce wool in their own homes.Women and children cleaned raw fiber and spun it into thread or yarn.Men wove cloth.Factory System:Production of cloth moved from home to large factories, where people worked on machines.Workers and machines brought together in factory under management.Factories used water or horses for power.James Watt (1760s) refines steam engines; steam engines power machines.
20 How did the Industrial Revolution Spread? Great Britain passed laws banning the export of technology, machines, and skilled labor to other countries.However, many technicians and skilled workers left Great Britain, taking their industrial knowledge with them.Story of Samuel Slater…