Presentation on theme: "N The Rise of the MACHINES! n Preview: op 3 inventions of all time that have affected your life (Explain why for each) –Identify the top 3 inventions of."— Presentation transcript:
n The Rise of the MACHINES! n Preview: op 3 inventions of all time that have affected your life (Explain why for each) –Identify the top 3 inventions of all time that have affected your life (Explain why for each)
Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution—a time of great economic, technological, and social changes that began in England between 1780 & 1840 and eventually spread throughout Europe and the USA. During this time, power-driven machinery in factories replaced work done in homes
Farming in the Middle Ages n During the Middle Ages, most of Europe was organized into farming villages on feudal manors n The manor produced all the food necessary to feed the feudal population (subsistence farming) n 1 of 3 manor fields was left fallow (empty) so the field could regain its fertility after being harvested n Animals grazed in these pastures
Farming in the Middle Ages n Disadvantages: –Farmers did not use all their available land at all times (the three-field system was inefficient) –Farmers did not experiment with new farming methods
Farming in the Middle Ages n An Agricultural Revolution began in England & spread throughout Europe because: –The population of England was increasing & more food was needed to feed the people –Napoleon’s Continental System cut off food imports from Europe into England, so England had to produce more food for itself
n Enclosure Movement: –Farmers were losing large amounts of crops after animals trampled them; So wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures & experimented with new farming technology –Villages lost common lands & peasants became poorer; But, more food was produced
The Agricultural Revolution n Having one field fallow, farmers were not using all available land; BUT planting crops in all fields took nutrients out of the soil n Crop Rotation (“Scientific Farming”) n Crop Rotation (“Scientific Farming”)— Every season, farmers used all fields but changed what crops are in what fields (Fields depleted of nutrients by 1 crop are replenished by a different crop); More crops produced
The Agricultural Revolution n Other Discoveries & Innovations : –Jethro Tull invented the seed drill; made planting seeds more efficient –Use of new crops (American corn & potatoes grew well in Europe) n Results of Agricultural Revolution: –More food was available & the population increased (death rate declined as fewer people starved)
n Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of businesses, free competition, & maximizing profits n The cottage industry is an example of early form of capitalism
Cottage Industry and Capitalism n What is the Cottage Industry? –Merchants buy materials (wool, cotton) & take to cottages to be spun –Take new yarn from spinners to weavers (make cloth), then to dyers to color the cloth, then to sewers to make finished product (shirt, pants) –Then, they sell the product for more than material & labor costs = profits
Cottage Industry and Capitalism n Effects of the Cottage Industry: Profits Bigger Profit –Big profits for new class of merchants (Profits + New Investment = Bigger Profit) –New source of income for peasants in addition to farming
Textile Industry and Factory System n The 1 st Industry was in Textiles: –Cottage industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles (clothes) –New machines were invented to improve spinning & weaving –Cotton Gin separated seeds from cotton; made cotton profitable; increased need for slave labor
One Invention leads to Another Six Major Inventions Change the Cotton Industry John Kay - Flying Shuttle James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny Richard Arkwright - Water Frame Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin
John Kay’s Flying Shuttle The Flying Shuttle was invented in 1733 The Flying Shuttle was a piece of wood that held yarn The shuttle was woven in and out of the yarn tied to the loom It allowed the weaver to work twice as fast
James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny The Spinning Jenny was invented in 1764. It was a faster spinning wheel. This machine could spin 80 threads at a time. Humans could spin only 1 thread at a time. This machine was hand operated.
Richard Arkwright’s Water Frame Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. This invention used water power from a fast flowing stream to drive the spinning wheels.
Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom The Power Loom was invented in 1785. This new loom made weaving much faster. It ran on waterpower. In 1813, 2000 looms were in use in English factories. By 1833, 100,000 looms were in use in England.
Textile Industry and Factory System n Rise of the Factory: –New machines were put in factories (too big for homes) & relied on water power so factories located near water sources n Effects of Factories in Britain: –Mass-produced textiles were much cheaper than hand-made products –Villagers lost part of income & were forced to find jobs in urban factories