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Industrial Revolution Begins

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution Begins"— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Revolution Begins

2 Revolution in Great Britain
1700s = change in technology energy source changed from human & animal power to machinery Industrial Revolution occurred when use of power-driven machinery was developed this started in Great Britain WHAT PROVIDED THE ENERGY FOR WORKING BEFORE MACHINES? (different phrasing) WHO OR WHAT DID THE WORK? possible answer: humans and animals

3 Factors for Success in Great Britain
exploration and colonialism power of the sea political stability government support growth of private investment exploration and colonialism HOW COULD EXPLORATION AND COLONIALISM HELP GREAT BRITAIN INDUSTRIALIZE? possible answer: vast amounts of raw material and new markets of consumers power of the sea HOW WOULD HAVING A GOOD CONTROL OF THE SEA HELP GREAT BRITAIN? (different phrasing) HOW WERE RAW MATERIALS AND GOODS TRANSPORTED? possible answer: can bring raw materials to GB and send finished product out political stability when at peace in the homeland, general daily living thrives, including commerce no battles to fight=more money to spend government support Great Britain had laws that favored business this helped Great Britain compete against other nations growth of private investment new businesses need investors to get the start up money to begin today = “research and development”

4 Agricultural Factors 1701  Jethro Tull invented seed drill
landowners bought up small farms and consolidated them in the enclosure movement seed drill = planted grain at even intervals much more efficient better breeding methods for animals and varieties of food crops were developed, as well increasing food supply meant the population could increase too enclosure movement the land bought up was not all farmed  some land was converted into large pastures for the grazing of animals, such as sheep WHAT ABOUT THE SMALL FARMERS? WHAT HAPPENED TO THEM? possible answer: they moved to the cities IF THEIR LAND WAS BOUGHT UP, WHERE DID THEY GO?

5 Factors of Production: Land
Great Britain had great natural resources coal for fuel iron for steel & machinery waterways (rivers & canals) to generate power and transport raw materials and goods land = all of a place’s natural resources mid 1700s  England had about 1,000 miles of canals By 1800  4,000 miles of canals Great Britain also had deepwater harbors to create ports for long-distance shipping

6 map on left shows coal fields and iron ore deposits
map on right shows rivers that could be use for transporting and canals NOTICE HOW THE CANALS ARE NEAR THE COAL FIELDS AND IRON ORE DEPOSITS

7 Factors of Production: Labor
Great Britain’s population grew because of greater food supply enclosure movement took land away from small farmers resulted in surplus of available workers people who lost their farmland were often entire families, who then moved to the cities to work in industry

8 Factors of Production: Capital
capital is the money or property a business needs to stay in business capital can be money, machines, or people people who specialized in one area had abilities and skills to their advantages people like Jethro Tull and other inventors were among this group of specialized people

9 A Revolution in Textiles
a cottage industry is an occupation in which you make a craft and it is done in your home making cloth had been a cottage industry cloth was made mostly with wool How was cloth made before machines did it? possible answer: people did it at home What happened to these skilled people when machines started taking their jobs? possible answer: out of work, went to the cities to get jobs in the new factories

10 A New Way of Making Cloth
cloth was now made from wool and cotton more sheep could be raised due to the enclosure movement cotton came to Great Britain from the colonies new inventions helped the process of cloth making WHERE DID THE COTTON COME FROM? possible answer: colonies in India and North America WHO HARVESTED THE COTTON? possible answer: slaves (but that is a topic that has been discussed already with the slave trade and is better covered in US history)

11 Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney removed seeds from raw cotton
invented by Whitney in 1793 HOW WERE THE SEEDS REMOVED BEFORE THE COTTON GIN? possible answer: by hand

12 Spinning Jenny invented by James Hargreaves
spun multiple threads at one time threads were still thick and broke easily invented in 1764

13 Spinning Frame invented by Richard Arkwright
similar to the spinning jenny spun stronger, thinner threads invented in 1768 the spinning frame spun cotton fiber into threads

14 “Flying Shuttle” invented by John Kay
pushed thread back and forth on loom automatically had been done by the weaver pushing the shuttle back and forth allowed for looms to be wider than arm’s width invented in 1733 the flying shuttle doubled the speed at which a worker could do the job many workers lost their jobs and Kay fled to France to die in poverty

15 Power Loom invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785
automated the weaving process was invented because faster spinning machines created demand for faster weaving machines much larger and faster than any previous weaving system

16 Cloth Making Outside the Home
new inventions to speed up the cloth making process were big machines machines needed a special place to house them cloth now made in FACTORIES WHERE WOULD ALL OF THESE NEW MACHINES TO MAKE CLOTH GO? possible answer: factories in 1770, England produced about 50,000 bolts of cloth by 1800, it had increased to 400,000 bolts

17 Steam Powers the Revolution
steam is created when water is heated to the point of vaporizing water vapors expand when hot steam engines were invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen

18 Newcomen Steam Engine

19 Development of the Steam Engine
James Watt innovated Newcomen’s steam engine to be more efficient Watt’s engine was better suited for factories 1802  Richard Trevithick put a steam engine in first locomotive 1807  Robert Fulton developed the first steamship WHAT IS AN ADVANTAGE OF STEAM POWER OVER WATER POWER FOR USE IN FACTORIES? possible answer: a factory doesn’t have to be near a waterway, meaning factories could also be nearer cities and/or ports where finished product had to end up steam-powered trains made it possible to ship finished goods faster steamships replaced sailing ships on the open sea and horse-drawn barges in canals

20 Coal for British Steam Engines
coal mining industry in northern and western England grew by 1800, Great Britain produced 80% of Europe’s coal mining was dangerous explosions coal dust collapsing shafts hard labor children were hired to slip down narrow shafts and pick and haul coal their lives were hard and many became “crooked and deformed”

21 Exit Ticket What are the three factors of production that we discussed? What is an example of each of these factors that Great Britain had? How did the early inventions help the textile industry change from a cottage industry to an industry performed in factories?

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