Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Famous sociologists And Major sociological perspectives

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Famous sociologists And Major sociological perspectives"— Presentation transcript:

1 Famous sociologists And Major sociological perspectives
Origins of Sociology Famous sociologists And Major sociological perspectives

2 What, where, when and why Sociology?
Took root in 1800s Originated primarily in France, Germany and England These countries had most strongly felt the effects of the Industrial Revolution which took place over time between 1760 and 1840

3 Changes in the Industrial Revolution
Shift from farms to large-scale production Factory replace the home as means of production Shift from country to large city living Rise in poverty as number of people seeking jobs outnumbered jobs Housing Shortages Crime Pollution Difficulties adapting to city life

4 Then What Happened? Over time it became more difficult to ignore the effect of society on the individual Individual rights became the focus of political movements Demands for freedom and rights gave rise to the French ( ) and American ( ) Revolutions

5 So, Sociology is Born Political, social and economic changes
Scholars attempt to study social principles using scientific methods to explain basic principles that govern society

6 Auguste Comte Founder of Sociology as a distinct subject
Coined the term “sociology” as the study of society Basic areas of study – social order and social change Statics – processes that hold society together Social dynamics – Society changes through processes Like the physical world – society operates under a set of laws

7 Herbert Spencer Strongly influenced by the work of the evolutionist Charles Darwin Used Darwin's’ theory of evolution of biological organisms to society Society has independent parts that work together to maintain the health of society Social Darwinism – social change and unrest are natural processes and societies that are the fittest will survive Felt because of this, these natural processes should be allowed to occur without intervention Coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”

8 Karl Marx – Conflict Theory
Structure of a society is influenced by how its economy is organized Society is divided into two parts Bourgeoisie – capitalists who own the means of production Proletariat – workers, own nothing, but provide the labor needed to produce goods SO THEN This imbalance would lead to class conflict that would only end when the proletariat joined together to overthrow the bourgeoisie After this conflict, the proletariat would create a classless society where each would contribute according to ability and each would be rewarded according to his needs

9 Emile Durkheim Concerned with problem of social order and the interdependent parts that maintain a system Viewed the role of the independent parts in terms of their function – the consequence that an element of society produces for the maintenance of its social system. Particularly interested in the function of religion in maintaining social order. Famous study Suicide Sociologists should only study the directly observable

10 Max Weber Interested in separate groups in society and not society as a whole Emphasis on the effects of society on the individual Sociologists should go beyond the directly observable to uncover the feelings and thoughts of individuals Verstehen – an attempt to understand the meanings individuals attach to their actions = Putting oneself in the place of others to see the situation through their eyes. Ideal type – a description comprised of the essential characteristics of a feature of society.

11 Harriet Martineau Observed society in the United States including race relations, family and religion Published the study Theory and Practice of Society in America Set the standards for objectivity in sociological study

12 Jane Addams Opened Hull House in Chicago in 1889 to service the needs of the poor If she was to help the poor she needed to know the exact nature of their problems Widespread survey of Chicago poor and their social challenges Published “Hull-House Maps and Papers.” First serious discussion of industrialization and urbanization effects First American Woman to be awarded Nobel Peace Prize Founder of the field of Social Work

13 Three Main Theoretical Perspectives
FUNCTIONALISTS - see society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system; focus on functions and dysfunctions CONFLICT THEORISTS - focus on forces in society that promote competition and change; see social change as an inevitable feature of society INTERACTIONISTS - focus on how individuals interact in society and on the meanings individuals attach to their own and to other’s actions

Download ppt "Famous sociologists And Major sociological perspectives"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google