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The Origins of Sociology

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1 The Origins of Sociology
Learning Target: Identify and explain the development of sociology by examining early sociologists and their contributions

2 Quick Review Sociology is the study of society through the use of observation and evidence Look for patterns of behaviors (conformity) among members of a group or society Use of the Scientific Method

3 Auguste Comte The Father of Sociology
Concerned with the improvement of society Positivism-should be based on scientific observation and proof so we can be positive Difference between social statics (stability) and social dynamics (change) Author of Positive Philosophy

4 Harriet Martineau Wrote more than 50 books Translated Comte’s writings
Contribution in research and the feminist theory Believed women’s lack of power kept them dependent Her sociological opinions of society looked at marriage, children, and race relations

5 Herbert Spencer Believed society is like a body,
parts working together to promote its well being and survival Believed strongly in Social Darwinism Did not believe in social reform (government interference) -went with the notion of the “survival of the fittest”, the poor deserved to be poor, rich deserved to be rich Followed much of the theories of Comte, most importantly the idea of positivism

6 Karl Marx Most notably a philosopher
and economist, did not consider himself a sociologist Believed in class conflict-ongoing struggle between the upper class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat) Belief that rather than a capitalist society, we should move to a classless society (communism) Published the Communist Manifesto-provided an analytical approach to class struggle and the problems with capitalism

7 Battle It Out How did the ideas of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx differ?

8 Spencer/Marx Unlike Spencer, Marx believed economics, not natural selection, determines the differences between the poor and the rich. Societies economic system decides people’s norms, values Marx urged people to take an active role in changing society-did not believe it would evolve on its own

9 Emile Durkheim Belief in the social structure-
there is a patterned interaction of people in social relationships The mixing of individual parts creates whole new characteristics Use of statistics to explain things Mechanical solidarity-dependent (pre industrial) Organic solidarity-independent (industrial)

10 Durkheim cont. The first to actually use the scientific
method while studying the causes of Suicide based on analysis of statistical data Collected from many European Countries Only consider objective evidence Believed that science and religion are compatible (work side by side)-agree/disagree?

11 Max Weber Disagreed with “objective evidence only” postition
Verstehen-to fully understand a group of people you have to mentally put yourself in their shoes to experience what they are experiencing Rationalization-knowledge, reasoning, planning Wrote The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism

12 Jane Addams Much work in the area of Poverty
Opened the Hull house in the slums of Chicago Imbalance of poor between social classes Work for women’s suffrage Inspired Eleanor Roosevelt Social Reform First American Women to win the Nobel Peace Prize

13 W.E.B. Dubois Main focus was on race
Examined the social structure of the Black Community (Philadelphia) Worked for greater Civil Rights for African Americans Pan African Movement Founded NAACP

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