Presentation on theme: "The Origins of Sociology"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Origins of Sociology Learning Target: Identify and explain the development of sociology by examining early sociologists and their contributions
2 Quick ReviewSociology is the study of society through the use of observation and evidenceLook for patterns of behaviors (conformity) among members of a group or societyUse of the ScientificMethod
3 Auguste Comte The Father of Sociology Concerned with the improvement of societyPositivism-should be based on scientific observation and proof so we can be positiveDifference between social statics (stability) and social dynamics (change)Author of Positive Philosophy
4 Harriet Martineau Wrote more than 50 books Translated Comte’s writings Contribution in research and the feminist theoryBelieved women’s lack of power kept them dependentHer sociological opinions of society looked at marriage, children, and race relations
5 Herbert Spencer Believed society is like a body, parts working together to promote its well being and survivalBelieved strongly in Social DarwinismDid not believe in social reform (government interference) -went with the notion of the “survival of the fittest”, the poor deserved to be poor, rich deserved to be richFollowed much of the theories of Comte, most importantly the idea of positivism
6 Karl Marx Most notably a philosopher and economist, did not consider himself a sociologistBelieved in class conflict-ongoing struggle between the upper class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat)Belief that rather than a capitalist society, we should move to a classless society (communism)Published the Communist Manifesto-provided an analytical approach to class struggle and the problems with capitalism
7 Battle It OutHow did the ideas of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx differ?
8 Spencer/MarxUnlike Spencer, Marx believed economics, not natural selection, determines the differences between the poor and the rich. Societies economic system decides people’s norms, values Marx urged people to take an active role in changing society-did not believe it would evolve on its own
9 Emile Durkheim Belief in the social structure- there is a patterned interactionof people in social relationshipsThe mixing of individual partscreates whole new characteristicsUse of statistics to explain thingsMechanical solidarity-dependent (pre industrial)Organic solidarity-independent (industrial)
10 Durkheim cont. The first to actually use the scientific method while studying the causes ofSuicide based on analysis of statistical dataCollected from many European CountriesOnly consider objective evidenceBelieved that science and religion are compatible (work side by side)-agree/disagree?
11 Max Weber Disagreed with “objective evidence only” postition Verstehen-to fully understand a group of people you have to mentally put yourself in their shoes to experience what they are experiencingRationalization-knowledge, reasoning, planningWrote The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism
12 Jane Addams Much work in the area of Poverty Opened the Hull house in the slums of ChicagoImbalance of poor between social classesWork for women’s suffrageInspired Eleanor RooseveltSocial ReformFirst American Women to win the Nobel Peace Prize
13 W.E.B. Dubois Main focus was on race Examined the social structure of the Black Community (Philadelphia)Worked for greater Civil Rights for African AmericansPan African MovementFounded NAACP