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Origins of Sociology Section 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of Sociology Section 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of Sociology Section 2

2 Historical Connection
Cultural shift Agricultural societies shift to industrial societies Changes peaked to interest of scholars 2

3 Important People in Sociology
Auguste Comte Harriet Martineau Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber Jane Addams W.E.B. Du Bois 3

4 Auguste Comte 1798-1857 Father of Sociology (coined the term)
Concerned with improving society Believed society should be studied scientifically Social Statics – study of social stability and order Social dynamics – study social change 4

5 © 2002-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender
SOC4044 Sociological Theory Saturday, April 15, 2017 Harriet Martineau Pronounced “Martin’o’” Born in Norwich, England Upper middle class family Textiles and Imported Wine Education Self study at home Saturday, April 15, 2017 © by Ronald Keith Bolender 5 © by Ronald Keith Bolender 5

6 © 2002-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender
Harriet Martineau Dealt with the problem of deafness throughout her life She took the risk of being a “single” female in a very male-dominated economic world. Her father died during the 1820’s and her fiancé had a mental and physical collapse…she decided to escape the confines of a Victorian marriage. She remained single and independent the rest of her life. By 1829, she had decided to commit herself to the writing profession. She was concerned with the oppression of women Saturday, April 15, 2017 © by Ronald Keith Bolender 6 6

7 Herbert Spencer Dabbled in engineering, drafting, inventing, journalism, and writing Society is like the human body Created the idea of Social Darwinism 7

8 Social Darwinism Natural selection applies to nature as well as society Don’t interfere with who is rich or poor Society will naturally weed out those that are not strong enough to survive 8

9 Karl Marx 1818-1883 Did not call himself a sociologist Communist
Class conflict will determine history Proletariat vs Bourgeosie 9

10 Karl Marx Proletariat – working class (work for bourgeoisie)
Bourgeoisie – own the means for producing wealth (own businesses that employ proletariat) 10

11 Emile Durkheim 1858-1917 Researched suicide
Explained mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity 11

12 Emile Durkheim Contributions
Several major contributions to sociology: Distinguishing and elaborating the field of sociology from other social sciences Emphasis on empirical data to lend support to theoretical speculations Focus on the division of labor and its consequences for social life Collective conscience or the need for a common core of values and moral rules

13 Emile Durkheim Continues
Mechanical solidarity – consensus of values and beliefs, enforced conformity, and dependence on tradition (agrarian societies) Organic solidarity – social interdependence based on goods and services (industrial societies) 13

14 Max Weber 1864-1920 Single most influence on sociology
Verstehen and rationalization 14

15 Max Weber Verstehen – putting yourself in someone's shoes to understand social behavior Rationalization – emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning (as opposed to superstition and tradition) 15

16 Janes Addams Focused on the effects of industrialism on the lower class Fought for social justice for immigrants, the sick, the poor, and the elderly Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1931

17 W.E.B. Du Bois 1868-1963 Fought for African-American equality
Influenced early development of sociology in America

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