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Chapter 1: Foundations of Sociology Foundations of Sociology.

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1 Chapter 1: Foundations of Sociology Foundations of Sociology

2 What are the seven social sciences?  Anthropology  Economics  History  Political Science  Psychology  Social Psychology  Sociology

3 Social Sciences  Which social science would focus on topics such as stocks, bonds, and interest rates?  Which social science would focus on campaigns and legislation?  Which social science would study Buddhism or the Maori tribe in New Zealand?  Which social science would study how groups relate to each other, like men and women for example?  Which social science would analyze slave narratives?  Which social science would analyze personality development?

4 Why was C. Wright Mills important in Sociology?  He developed the idea of the sociological imagination.  This is the ability to make connections between ourselves and society. We recognize that our choices affect others and others affect us in turn. Ideally, we can use this to make more informed decisions about our lives.

5 What four events led to the development of Sociology? The Enlightenment The American Revolution The French Revolution The Industrial Revolution

6 Why was the Enlightenment important to the development of Sociology?  The Enlightenment was a movement away from religion and faith.  It emphasized reason, logic, math, and science.

7 Why were the American and French Revolutions important to the development of Sociology?  Both Revolutions focused on individual rights.  They were movements away from monarchies and towards a democratic system based on liberty and equality for all.

8 Why was the Industrial Revolution important to the development of Sociology?  The Industrial Revolution focused on the economy.  Instead of agriculture, people starting moving to cities, in a process known as urbanization.  There, they worked in factories, which contributed to a market-based economy.

9 Why was Auguste Comte significant?  Auguste Comte is known as the Father of Sociology.  He was the first to use the word ‘sociology.’  After the violence and chaos of the French Revolution, he worked for a stable and orderly society.

10 Why is Herbert Spencer significant?  Herbert Spencer adapted Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and stated that some groups of humans were naturally better than others.  He believed that society would improve if all of the ‘unfit’ would die out. He called this idea Social Darwinism, or ‘survival of the fittest.’  He also believed in an orderly, stable society.  His ideas were popular at the time and influenced major developments, like the Holocaust.

11 Why was Emile Durkheim significant?  Emile Durkheim believed sociologists should study only what is directly observable.  He first used statistics in his research.  Since he was interested in order and stability, he researched functions. –Functions are organizations that exist to help maintain order in society. Such as….

12 Why was Karl Marx significant?  Karl Marx believed the bourgeoisie were exploiting the proletariat during the Industrial Revolution.  He thought the poor should earn just as much as the rich, thereby creating a class-less, or equal, society.  These ideas came to be known as communism. They would later become perverted by dictators, such as Stalin and Mao Zedong.  Marx thought the only way society would progress is through change, and change was necessary due to conflict between competing groups.

13 What were Marx’s terms for the rich and the poor?  The bourgeoisie were the owners of the means of production, or the rich. They typically were owners of factories, mines, or railroads.  The proletariat were the workers. They typically worked for the bourgeoisie for very little wages under poor conditions. Marx hated this inequality and proposed that workers share the profits that the company makes equally.

14 Why was Max Weber significant?  Max Weber believed in studying an individual’s thoughts and feelings.  He advocated Verstehen, or understanding someone else’s perspective.  He can be thought of as a social psychologist.

15 What are the six main research methods social scientists use?  Case study  Content Analysis  Historical Method  Observation  Statistical Analysis  Surveys –In conducting research, sociologists try to be objective, or without bias, to prove their ideas and gather data.

16 Research Methods  If you wanted to determine how many instances of violence are shown in a Saturday morning cartoon, what research method/s would you use?  If you wanted to determine if someone had multiple personalities, what research method/s would you use?  If you wanted to determine how many of your classmates support President Obama’s policies, what research method/s would you use?

17 What are the three main theoretical perspectives?  A theoretical perspective is a broad explanation of how a sociologist sees, or understands, the world: –Functionalist Perspective –Conflict Perspective –Interactionist Perspective

18  The functionalist perspective focuses on order and stability in society. –What theorist/s adopted a functionalist perspective?  The conflict perspective focuses on competition and change. –What theorist/s adopted a conflict perspective?  The interactionist perspective focuses on how individuals interact with their surroundings. –What theorist/s adopted an interactionist perspective?


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