2 Chapter 7, Section 1 Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to:describe how rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape Chinese civilization.explain how rulers known as the Shang became powerful because they controlled land and had strong armies.describe how Chinese rulers claimed the right to rule by a Mandate of Heaven.AL COS: AL2, AL2a, AL2b, AL3, AL3a, AL8, AL8b
3 Why is China Important? world’s largest population one of the fastest growing economies in the worldexperiencing major infrastructure growthleader in sciences (computers & mathematics)historically and culturally significantcommunist governmenta new superpower?
4 China’s Geography – page 224 Huang He (Yellow River) – flows from Mongolia to the Pacific Oceanparticularly fertile due to loessChang Jiang (Yangtze River) – flows east across China and empties into the Yellow SeaPhoto: The Three Gorges Dam Project. Available from: Encarta Encyclopedia.
5 China’s Geography – page 226 Less than 1/10 of China’s land is arable (fit for farming)Himalayas – southwestKunlun Shan & Tian Shan – western borderGobi & Taklimakan DesertsGobi – a cold, rocky desert east of the Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan Mountains
6 The Shang Dynasty – page 226 The Huang He valley was the site of the first Chinese civilizations.Xia dynasty (?)Shang dynasty – founded c B.C.most historians use the rise of this dynasty as the beginning of Chinese civilizationmade the city of Anyang China’s first capital city
7 The Shang Dynasty – page 226 strong monarchyaristocracy (nobles whose wealth comes from the land they own) made of warlords and officialslarge armyagricultural society (farmers could be pulled for other projects)
8 Spirits and Ancestors – page 227 spirits in mountains, rivers, etc.ancestor worshipfamily was central to societybelieved departed ancestors could bring good fortune and good luckofferings made even today
9 Telling the Future – page 228 government and religion closely linkedoracle bones – first example of Chinese writingPhoto: A Shang oracle bone. Available from:
10 The Chinese Language – page 228 pictographs – characters that stand for objectsideographs – a character that joins two or more pictographs to represent an ideaadvantage: people from all over could read = unitydisadvantage: too many characters too remember (needed to know 1,500 to be barely literate)
11 Shang Artists – page 229bronze casting – the best-known Shang art formPhoto: The Shang dynasty (1570?-1045? BC) arose during the Bronze Age in China. In addition to producing stone tools, such as the mattock and axe (bottom left), the Shang made notable advances in the manufacture of bronze weapons and ritual vessels. The bronze objects shown here include the halberd (top left), the chief weapon in ancient Chinese society, and the yue (top center), used for beheading human sacrifices. Available from:Photo: Shang casting methods. Available from:
12 The Zhou Dynasty – page 229Wu Wang led a rebellion against the Shang, and created the Zhou dynasty (1045 B.C. – 256 B.C.).dynasty lased for more than 800 yearsdeveloped the idea of the Mandate of Heaven
13 What Was the Mandate of Heaven? – page 230 mandate – a formal orderMandate of Heaven – idea that the king had been chosen by heavenly order to rule; Zhou claimed that principle gave them the right to rulecatches:Dao – the proper way kings were expected to rulepeople had the right to overthrow an unjust king or one that has apparently lost the Mandate of Heavendynastic cycle
14 The Dynastic Cycle in China New dynasty gains power, restores peace and order, and claims to have the Mandate of Heaven.Strong dynasty establishes peace and prosperity; it is considered to have the Mandate of Heaven.In time, dynasty declines and becomes corrupt; taxes are raised; power grows weaker..Disasters such as floods, famines, peasant revolts, and invasions occur.Old dynasty is seen as having loss the Mandate of Heaven; rebellion is justified.Dynasty is overthrown through rebellion and bloodshed; new dynasty emerges.The Dynastic Cycle in China
15 New Tools and Trade – page 230 ironpopulation boomroads and canalscoined money introducedsilk
16 The Zhou Empire Falls – page 231 “Period of the Warring States”invention of the saddle and stirrup allowed for mounted combat
17 Chapter 7, Section 1 Questions Between which two rivers is the heartland of China found?Why is China’s arable land limited?What is a dynasty?What were oracle bones and how were they used?What is the Mandate of Heaven and which dynasty used it as a justification for their rise to power?How is the dynastic cycle connected to the Mandate of Heaven?
18 Life in Ancient ChinaChapter 7, Section 2, page 233
19 Chapter 7, Section 2 Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to:describe the three main social classes Chinese society, landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.explain how Chinese philosophies grew out of a need for order in China.AL COS: AL2, AL2a, AL3, AL3a, AL8
20 Life in Ancient China – page 233 Chinese social classestenant farmers – people pay rent by giving the landlord a portion of their cropslandowning aristocratspeasant farmersmerchants
21 What was Life Like in a Chinese Family? – page 234 Family was the basic building block of Chinese society.filial piety – practice that requires children to respect their parents and older relativesThe leader of the family was usually the oldest male.
22 Who Was Confucius? – page 236 Confucius – China’s first great teacher and thinkergoal: to bring peace to societybasic premise: people needed to have a sense of dutyConfucianism – taught that if each person does his or her duty, society as a whole will do wellPhoto: Confucius. Available from:
23 What Is Daoism? – page 238 Laozi – the “Old Master”(?) founded Daoism people should give up their worldly desiresturn to nature and the Daoturn away from worldly concerns and live in peace with natureDao De JingPhoto: Laozi. Available from:
25 What Is Legalism? – page 239Hanfeizi – thought people were naturally evildeveloped Legalism – taught that people needed harsh laws and punishment to make them live rightlystrong ruler necessaryaristocrats liked Legalism
26 Chinese Ethical Systems – page 239 ConfucianismSocial order, harmony, and good government should be based on family relationships.Respect for parents and elders is important to a well ordered society.Education is important to both the welfare of the individual and to society.DaoismThe natural order is more important than social order.A universal force guides all things.Human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature.LegalismA highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order.Punishments are useful to maintain order.Thinkers and their ideas should be strictly controlled by the government.
27 Chapter 7, Section 2 Questions What is unique about the ancient Chinese social structure?Define filial piety.Name the founders of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.Which philosophy was centered around a strong system of laws and punishments in order to keep society in order?Compare Confucianism and Daoism.
28 The Qin and Han Dynasties Chapter 7, Section 3, page 240
29 Emperor Qin Shihuangdi – page 241 Period of the Warring States – period of violence that made people look for a way to restore orderQin Shihuangdi (sp) – “First Qin Emperor” (221 B.C.)from the state of Qin (China)establishes the Qin Dynasty (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)Photo: Qin Shihuangdi. Available from:
30 A Powerful Ruler – page 241 Qin Shihuangdi based his rule on the ideas of Legalismeliminated oppositionburned booksinstituted a practice called “strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches”created an autocracy – a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary mannerPhoto: Map of the Qin Dynasty. Available from:“strengthening the trunk…” – from Ancient World History; practice calling for noble families to come to the capital city
31 A Powerful Ruler – page 242 accomplishments set standards for writing, law, currency, weights, and measuresover 4,000 miles of roads constructedirrigation projects improved farm productionearly Great Wall (one we know today built in the Ming Dynasty)Photo: Parts of the Great Wall. Available from:
32 Why Did the People Rebel? – page 242 Four years after Qin Shihuangdi’s death, the Qin dynasty was overthrown.farmers, scholars, and aristocrats were all displeased with how he had ruled
33 The Han Dynasty – page 244Liu Bang – founded the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. – A.D. 220)Han Wudi – wanted talented people to work in government; developed the civil service exampopulation reaches 60 million under Han Wudiexpansion policy –”Martial Emperor”Photo: Map of the Han Dynasty. Available from:
34 An Era of New Inventions – page 245 waterwheelsiron drill bitssteelpaperrudderadvances in medicineacupuncture – treatment that is supposed to ease pain by sticking needles into the skin
35 The Silk Road – page 246Silk Road – network of trade routes that stretched from China to southwest AsiaChina exported silk, spices, tea, & porcelainZhang Qian – explored areas west of China; brought back stories of the Roman Empire