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Chapter 2 Section 4 River Dynasties in China

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1 Chapter 2 Section 4 River Dynasties in China


3 The Geography of China China somewhat isolated Yellow Sea
East China Sea Pacific Ocean Taklimakan (Talk makan) Desert Plateau of Tibet Himalayas Gobi Desert Mongolian Plateau

4 River Systems Huang (hwan) He (Yellow River)
Chang (chon) Jiang (g- ang) (Yangtze) Yellowish silt, or fertile soil, called loess (loss)


6 Environmental Challenges
Geographic isolation China’s Sorrow Trading limited Invasions from the west and north

7 China’s Heartland Farming land = 10%

8 Civilization Emerges in Shang Times
Fossils show ancestors 1.7 mya Near Beijing, Homo erectus, Peking man, found

9 The First Dynasties Before Sumerians, settlements along Huang He being built. 1st dynasty = Xia Dynasty, led by Yu When, Meso., Egypt and Indus were falling to invaders, the Shang (short a sound) came to power in China First to leave written records

10 Early Cities Anyang, (on yawn) one capital of the Shang Dynasty
Built of mainly wood Walls built for protection

11 The Development of Chinese Culture
People outside of China were barbarians Group more important than the individual Chief loyalty lies with the family Obedience and respect owed to the ruler

12 Family Respect towards parents, the most important value
Eldest man in control, women inferiors Marriages were arranged Improve status by giving birth to sons

13 Social Classes Nobles and peasants

14 Religious Beliefs Family linked to religion
Spirits brought good or bad fortune Shang worshiped Shang Di and consulted him through oracle bones – how did they do it?

15 Development of Writing
One character stands for one syllable or unit of language Almost no links between spoken and written language (2 + 2 = 4)

16 Development of Writing Continued
Advantage: could learn same system of language no matter where they were from Disadvantage: large amount of characters to remember 1,500 = literate 10,000 = scholar 50,000 Today

17 Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle
Zhou (jow) overthrew the Shang They brought new ideas to the Chinese civilization                      Zhou Wen Wang BC

18 Mandate of Heaven Zhou's justified their conquest – what did they say?
This developed into the view that royal authority came from heaven

19 Mandate of Heaven Continued
Just ruler had divine approval Non-just ruler lost the Mandate of Heaven and right to rule

20 Mandate of Heaven Continued
This transferred to the view of government Natural disasters were seen as what? Pattern of rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties were called the dynastic cycle

21 Control Through Feudalism
Zhou’s dynasty was large. To govern, control was given to royal families and nobles Feudalism developed

22 Control Through Feudalism
Local lords at first submitted to Zhou rulers. Lords grew stronger and their dependency on the king became less Rebellions developed

23 Improvements in Technology and Trade
Road and canals Coined money Blast furnaces to produce cast iron Used for weapons and farming tools

24 A Period of Warring States
Empire generally peaceful Zhou monarch murdered by nomads Some family members escaped New capital set at Luoyang (lou-o-yan)

25 A Period of Warring States
Zhou kings were not strong and couldn’t control lords who continued to fight each other Fighting brought an end to traditional values

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