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Early Chinese Civilizations Dynasties

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Presentation on theme: "Early Chinese Civilizations Dynasties"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Chinese Civilizations Dynasties

2 Dynasties in China The Xia - over four thousand years ago?
The Shang (1750 to 1122 B.C.) (628y) The Zhou (1122 to 256 B.C.) (866y) The Qin (221 to 206 B.C.) (15y) The Han Dynasty (206 B.C. to 220 A.D.)

3 First Chinese Dynasty Dynasty First Chinese Dynasty The end.
A succession of rulers from the same family. First Chinese Dynasty Xia (SHYAH) Dynasty Little is known about them. The end.

4 The Shang Dynasty Ruled from 1750 to 1122BC.
Farming society ruled by aristocracy Upper class landowners with power that is passed down to each generation. Capital was Anyang.

5 Shang Dynasty 1st civilization in China to write things down.
They used pictographs, or pictures, to represent objects. They also used ideographs to represent ideas such as beauty, joy, and justice. They are also responsible for developing an accurate calendar. Finally, they are also responsible for improving the art of bronze-making. Out of bronze, they created weapons, vessels for religious purposes, and everyday objects such as cooking pots.

6 Tombs at Anyang

7 Artifacts from Anyang

8 The Shang Dynasty Kingdom was divided into territories governed by warlords (aristocracy). King oversaw these territories, and could choose and remove the warlords. Social Structure King Aristocracy (warlords) Peasants who farmed warlords’ land Merchants/Artisans Slaves

9 Shang Dynasty - Religion
Human sacrifice Performed to win the favor of the gods. Believed in life after death Worshiped their ancestors “Ancestor worship” Burned replicas of physical objects for their ancestors to use in the next world.

10 Zhou Dynasty Zhou led a revolt against the Shang and began another dynasty. Longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history (900 years). Continued the same political system the Shang used! (King ruling warlords in control of territories) The plow increased size of harvest, created food surpluses; cities also grew and thus, population grew under Zhou Roads, canals allowed better transportation, communication Introduced coins, use of chopsticks, and silk


12 “The Five Relationships”
The Zhou Dynasty Family Life Loyalty to the family was vital to the Chinese people. Filial Piety All members of the family had to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family. “The Five Relationships” Son was subordinate to the father Wife was to husband Younger brother to older brother All were to the king Friend to friend

13 Zhou Dynasty One difference from the Shang Dynasty…
Claimed they had the Mandate of Heaven Heaven kept order through the king. The king was a link between Heaven and Earth. This Mandate of Heaven played an important role in the Dynastic Cycle. Natural cycle of a dynasty.

14 The Zhou Dynasty The Mandate of Heaven Positive and Negative sides
Mandate means = order, permission, authorization The Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles: The right to rule is granted by Heaven. There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty. Positive and Negative sides Mandate of Heaven for a Dynasty It gives the ruler prestige and religious importance. It gives the ruler supreme power. It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly because everyone believes he has the “Mandate of Heaven”. The ruler’s power must be kept in check by virtue. It justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful.

15 Dynastic Cycle Dynasty is founded by a powerful leader
Leader gains Mandate of Heaven Period of power and prosperity Restores peace and glory Improves society Period of decline Society declines, natural disaster Leader loses Mandate of Heaven Period of rebellion – Dynasty overthrown


17 The End of the Dynastic Cycle for the Zhou Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty The End of the Dynastic Cycle for the Zhou Dynasty Civil War will break out (403 B.C.) Becomes known as the “Period of Warring States” What happens? And the winner of the warring states is… Qin Shi Huangdi- The first Emperor of China The Qin Dynasty will emerge to take control Huang di = King of the gods The August most revered god.

18 The Qin Dynasty Achievements
Ordered the construction of the Great Wall of China Divided the country into military districts, each ruled by an appointed official Standardized coins, weights and measurements Repaired roads and canals Legalism is the practiced philosophy (instead of Confucianism)

19 Qin Shi Huangdi’s Tomb

20 Han Dynasty Liu Bang leads peasant revolt
Confucianism is restored, removing Legalism. Buddhism is brought from India to China Paper is invented by Tsai Lun

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