2 Dynasties in China The Xia - over four thousand years ago? The Shang (1750 to 1122 B.C.) (628y)The Zhou (1122 to 256 B.C.) (866y)The Qin (221 to 206 B.C.) (15y)The Han Dynasty (206 B.C. to 220 A.D.)
3 First Chinese Dynasty Dynasty First Chinese Dynasty The end. A succession of rulers from the same family.First Chinese DynastyXia (SHYAH) DynastyLittle is known about them.The end.
4 The Shang Dynasty Ruled from 1750 to 1122BC. Farming society ruled by aristocracyUpper class landowners with power that is passed down to each generation.Capital was Anyang.
5 Shang Dynasty 1st civilization in China to write things down. They used pictographs, or pictures, to represent objects.They also used ideographs to represent ideas such as beauty, joy, and justice.They are also responsible for developing an accurate calendar.Finally, they are also responsible for improving the art of bronze-making.Out of bronze, they created weapons, vessels for religious purposes, and everyday objects such as cooking pots.
8 The Shang DynastyKingdom was divided into territories governed by warlords (aristocracy).King oversaw these territories, and could choose and remove the warlords.Social StructureKingAristocracy (warlords)Peasants who farmed warlords’ landMerchants/ArtisansSlaves
9 Shang Dynasty - Religion Human sacrificePerformed to win the favor of the gods.Believed in life after deathWorshiped their ancestors“Ancestor worship”Burned replicas of physical objects for their ancestors to use in the next world.
10 Zhou DynastyZhou led a revolt against the Shang and began another dynasty.Longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history (900 years).Continued the same political system the Shang used!(King ruling warlords in control of territories)The plow increased size of harvest, created food surpluses; cities also grew and thus, population grew under ZhouRoads, canals allowed better transportation, communicationIntroduced coins, use of chopsticks, and silk
12 “The Five Relationships” The Zhou DynastyFamily LifeLoyalty to the family was vital to the Chinese people.Filial PietyAll members of the family had to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family.“The Five Relationships”Son was subordinate to the fatherWife was to husbandYounger brother to older brotherAll were to the kingFriend to friend
13 Zhou Dynasty One difference from the Shang Dynasty… Claimed they had the Mandate of HeavenHeaven kept order through the king.The king was a link between Heaven and Earth.This Mandate of Heaven played an important role in the Dynastic Cycle.Natural cycle of a dynasty.
14 The Zhou Dynasty The Mandate of Heaven Positive and Negative sides Mandate means = order, permission, authorizationThe Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles:The right to rule is granted by Heaven.There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler.The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler.The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.Positive and Negative sidesMandate of Heaven for a DynastyIt gives the ruler prestige and religious importance.It gives the ruler supreme power.It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly because everyone believes he has the “Mandate of Heaven”.The ruler’s power must be kept in check by virtue.It justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful.
15 Dynastic Cycle Dynasty is founded by a powerful leader Leader gains Mandate of HeavenPeriod of power and prosperityRestores peace and gloryImproves societyPeriod of declineSociety declines, natural disasterLeader loses Mandate of HeavenPeriod of rebellion – Dynasty overthrown
17 The End of the Dynastic Cycle for the Zhou Dynasty The Qin DynastyThe End of the Dynastic Cycle for the Zhou DynastyCivil War will break out (403 B.C.)Becomes known as the “Period of Warring States”What happens?And the winner of the warring states is…Qin Shi Huangdi- The first Emperor of ChinaThe Qin Dynasty will emerge to take controlHuang di = King of the godsThe August most revered god.
18 The Qin Dynasty Achievements Ordered the construction of the Great Wall of ChinaDivided the country into military districts, each ruled by an appointed officialStandardized coins, weights and measurementsRepaired roads and canalsLegalism is the practiced philosophy (instead of Confucianism)