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Noncommunicable Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases diseases that affects the heart or blood vessels.

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Presentation on theme: "Noncommunicable Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases diseases that affects the heart or blood vessels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Noncommunicable Diseases

2 Cardiovascular Diseases diseases that affects the heart or blood vessels

3 Hypertension also called high blood pressure blood pressure is above normal on the blood vessel walls can damage the heart, blood vessels, other organs

4 Heart Attack reduced, blocked blood supply to the heart symptoms – sudden, intense chest pains (1 in 4 people have no symptoms) 1 million Americans have heart attacks each year – 40% die

5 Congestive Heart Failure gradual weakening of the heart muscle the heart cannot maintain regular pumping of blood

6 Stroke blood flow blocked to the brain symptoms – cannot move one side of body, difficulty speaking, sudden confusion

7 Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease high blood pressure high cholesterol drug/alcohol use tobacco use excessive weight physical inactivity stress family history gender (more common in men) age (more common age 65+)

8 Screening EKG – electrocardiogram – graph measures heart activity MRI – Magnetic resonance imaging – creates images of organs

9 Treatment angioplasty – insert a tube with a balloon to open blocked arteries coronary bypass surgery – vein from leg is removed and attached around the heart pacemaker – device to help heart send regular heartbeats medication

10 Cancer uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells – tumor – a large group of cells with no function – benign – noncancerous cells – stay local – malignant – cancerous cells – can spread – carcinogen – cancer- causing substance cancer can occur on nearly all parts of the body

11 Common Cancers breast – possibly family history (genetic) – unknown causes – 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed – can occur in men – symptoms – unusual lump in the breast – diagnosed by self-check or mammogram lung – leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. – exposure to tobacco smoke, radon, asbestos – symptoms – coughing, shortness of breath, coughing up blood – diagnosed by chest x-ray

12 Common Cancers (cont.) Colon – second leading cancer death in US – family history – age – symptoms – frequent stomach cramps, blood in waste, change in bowel habits, unexplained weight loss – diagnosed by colonoscopy

13 Common Cancers (cont.) Skin – most common type of cancer in US – becoming more frequent – suntanning, using sun tanning beds – symptoms – changes in skin, new and larger moles, sores that bleed but won’t heal – diagnosed by self-check or physical exam Cervical – caused by infection with HPV (an STI) – symptoms – unusual vaginal bleeding – diagnosed by Pap Test

14 Other Common Cancers Prostate Testicular

15 Cancer treatment surgery radiation chemotherapy

16 Cancer Prevention stay out of sun; use sunscreen when in sun exercise eat nutritious food avoid tobacco, alcohol monthly self-exam of skin, breasts, testes

17 Allergies specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance – pollen, dust, insect bites, milk, peanuts – body reacts by producing histamine – produces itchy eyes, runny nose, hives (itchy, raised bumps) – some allergies are life threatening – difficulty breathing, swallowing – diagnosis – skin test – small amounts of allergens applied – look for reaction – treatment – avoid allergens; medicine – antihistamines; immunotherapy (shots)

18 Asthma small airways in lungs are inflamed and narrow, making it difficult to breath usually starts in childhood can be life threatening 17 million in US problems triggered by air pollution, smoke, pollen treatment– reduce pollution; avoid exposure to smoke; take medication, such as an inhaler, to relax and widen airways

19 Diabetes chronic, life-long disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy Type 1 – body does not produce insulin – damaged pancreas – glucose, a blood sugar, stays in blood and doesn’t go to cells – organs can be damaged – eyes, kidneys, heart – treatment – daily injections of insulin Type 2 – body cells unable to take in insulin – common age 40+, but now occurring in younger people – risks – high fat diet, increased weight, low activity – leads to kidney failure, loss of fingers/toes, blindness – treatment – insulin injections, weight loss, healthy eating

20 Arthritis diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints more common in older people leading cause of disability in US treatment – control weight to descrease cartilage damage; warm up before exercise; protect against Lyme disease; medication to relieve pain; No cure

21 Skin Cancer Moles A - Asymmetry B - Border C - Color D - Diameter E - Elevation E - Enlargement

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