2 Non-Communicable Diseases Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environmentCardiovascular Disease is one of the most common and preventable diseases
3 Cancer Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells More than 100 typesOccurs because of DNA damageA buildup can cause a tumorAbnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body
4 Types of Tumors 2 types: benign and malignant Benign - grows slowly and is noncancerous but could interfere with normal body functionsMalignant - spreads to other tissues and is cancerousMetastasis - spread of a cancer from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part
6 Types of Cancer Lymphomas – affect immune system Leukemias – affect blood-forming organsCarcinomas – affect glands and body liningsincluding skinSarcomas – affect connective tissues
7 Common Cancers Women – Breast Lung Colorectal Cancer of the Uterus ProstateOrder for both men and women can change based upon race/ethnicity
8 General Signs and Symptoms Unexplained weight loss10 or more pounds in a relatively short amount of timeFeverUsually occurs after the cancer has spread to other partsFatigueDoes not get better with restPainCan be an early symptom with certain cancers or a later symptom with cancers that have spreadSkin changesDiscoloration, rashesSome cancers have more specific signs and symptoms
9 Risk Factors for Cancer Exposure to carcinogens (cancer-causing substance)Tobacco and UV light are most commonTobacco and tobacco smoke contain at least 43 different carcinogens215,000 new cases of lung cancer related to smoking are diagnosed each yearRadiation (UV light)Skin that is tanned is your skin’s reaction to damage from the UV light
10 Risk Factors for Cancer STD’sHuman Papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancerHepatitis B can cause liver cancerDietary FactorsHigh fat, low fiber diets often linked with colon, breast, and prostate cancersHeredityFamily history can determine if you are at a higher risk
11 Treatments for Cancer Surgery to remove cancerous masses Radiation therapy uses radioactive substances to kill cancer cells and shrink cancerous massesChemotherapy uses chemicals to destroy cancer cellsImmunotherapy activates a person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy themHormone therapy uses medicines to interfere with the production of certain hormones that facilitate cancer growth.
12 DiabetesType 1 and Type 2A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert sugar into energyInsulin producing cells in the Pancreas are either inefficient or destroyedInsulin helps glucose enter body cellsType 1 accounts for 5 – 10% of all diabetes casesBody fails to produce insulin and glucose builds up in the bloodCells begin attacking and destroying cells in the pancreas that produce insulinDaily doses of insulin are required through injections or a specially attached pump
13 Diabetes Type 2 accounts for 90-95% of all cases Usually appears in adults over age 40Disease is developing in younger adults, teens, and childrenBody is unable to use insulin properly or is not making enoughLow-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help manage diabetes
14 Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes High blood pressureHigh blood triglyceride (fat) levelsGestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 poundsHigh-fat and carbohydrate dietHigh alcohol intake
15 Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Sedentary lifestyleObesity or being overweightEthnicity: Certain groups, such as African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Japanese Americans, have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic whites.Aging: Increasing age is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes begins to rise significantly at about age 45, and rises considerably after age 65.
16 Complications from Diabetes Blood-glucose levels that are elevated (hyperglycemia) over a long period of time can lead to:Heart AttackStrokeBlindnessKidney FailureNerve Damage
17 Hypoglycemia Too low of a blood-glucose level Symptoms occur very quicklyShakinessNervousness or anxietySweating, chills and clamminessLightheadedness or dizzinessRapid/fast heartbeatHunger and nauseaBlurred/impaired visionTingling or numbness in the lips or tongueWeakness or fatigueLack of coordinationUnconsciousnessIrritability or impatienceConfusion, including deliriumHeadachesAnger, stubbornness, or sadnessNightmares or crying out during sleepSeizuresComa
18 Treatments for Diabetes Low-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help manage diabetesInsulin injections help manage blood glucose levelsThere is no cure but weight loss has shown to greatly manage symptoms