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NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES December 1, 2008. Non-communicable  Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.  Cardiovascular.

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Presentation on theme: "NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES December 1, 2008. Non-communicable  Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.  Cardiovascular."— Presentation transcript:


2 Non-communicable  Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.  Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis

3 Cardiovascular Disease  Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.  Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of this disease.  Types of CVD –  Hypertension  Arthrosclerosis  Angina Pectoris  Arrhythmias  Heart Attack  Congestive Heart Failure  Stroke

4 Risk Factors for CVD  Tobacco Use  High Blood Pressure  High Cholesterol  Physical Inactivity  Excess Weight  Stress  Drug and Alcohol Use

5 Risk Factors – Cannot Be Controlled  Heredity  Gender – Men are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease as well as greater risk of having a heart attack.  Age – 80% of people who die of cardiovascular diseases are 65 or older.

6 Cancer  Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells  Tumor – abnormal mass of tissue that has not natural role in the body.  Benign – noncancerous  Malignant – cancerous Metastasis – spread of cancer from the point it originated to other parts of the body.

7 Types of Cancer  Lymphomas – cancers of the immune system  Leukemias – cancers of the blood-forming tissues  Carcinomas – cancers of the gland and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs  Sarcomas – cancers of the connective tissues, including bones, ligaments, and muscle

8 Risk Factors  Tobacco Use – Lung, bladder, pancreas, and kidney cancer; 1 in 5 deaths are attributed to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke  Sexually Transmitted Disease – cervical and liver cancers.  Dietary Factors – Colon, Breast, and Prostate; 30% of all cancers linked to poor food choices, specifically ones high in fat and low in fiber.  Radiation – Skin Cancer; 80% of skin cancers are preventable

9 CAUTION about Cancer  Change in bowel habits  A sore that does not heal  Unusual bleeding or discharge  Thickening or a lump  Indigestion or difficulty swallowing  Obvious change in a wart or mole  Nagging cough or hoarseness  Other symptoms can include fatigue and unexplained weight loss.

10 Reduce Your Risk  Practice abstinence from sexual activity  Be physically active  Maintain a healthy weight  Eat nutritious foods – low in saturated fat and high in fiber  Protect your skin from ultraviolet radiation  Avoid tobacco and alcohol  Recognize the warning signs of cancer

11 Treating Cancer  Treatment depends on several factors such as: type of cancer, location, and whether the tumor has spread.  Surgery  Radiation Therapy – radioactive substances used to kill cancer cells and shrinks the cancerous mass.  Chemotherapy – chemicals to kill cancer cells.  Immunotherapy – activates person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them.  Hormone Therapy – medicines that interfere with production of hormones; kill or slow the growth of cells.

12 Allergies  Specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance.  Pollen, foods, dust, mold, chemicals, insect venom, and medicines – common allergens  Histamines – chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production.  Typical Symptoms – sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose  Severe Symptoms – hives, itching or swelling of a stung area or the mouth, difficulty breathing, raspy voice, swelling of the tongue, dizziness.

13 Asthma  An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed.  Affects more than 17 million people in the U.S.  5,000 Americans die of the disease  Certain substances, called triggers, irritate the bronchial tubes resulting in the tightening of the walls and production of mucus.

14 Managing Asthma  Monitor the Condition  Manage the Environment  Manage stress  Take medication

15 Diabetes  Chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy.  Each year, approximately 1 million new cases are diagnosed.  The pancreas produced too little or no insulin  A hormone that helps glucose enter the body’s cells.  If glucose is not converted into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream, thus a blood test is needed to diagnose diabetes.

16 Types of Diabetes  Type 1 (Autoimmune Disease)  Accounts for 5-10% of all diabetics.  Appears suddenly and progresses quickly; can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart.  People can treat diabetes with daily doses of insulin via injections or pump.

17 Types of Diabetes  Type 2  Accounts for 90-95% of all cases; appears most often after the age of 40.  Body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin properly.  Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity.  Gestational Diabetes – during pregnancy

18 Symptoms  Frequent urination  Excessive thirst  Unexplained weight loss  Extreme hunger  Sudden vision changes  Tingling in hands or feet  Frequent fatigue  Very dry skin  Sore that are slow to heal  More infections that usual

19 Arthritis Arthritis epidemic may result from the number of people participating in adventure sports  100 + diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints.  8.4 million ages 18-44 have arthritis.  Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis most common types

20 Osteoarthritis  Disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down resulting in the bones rubbing against each other.  Accounts for half of all arthritis cases affecting about 20 million nationwide.  Most common in women and in people over the age of 45.

21 Reduce the Risk of Osteoarthritis  Controlling weight  Preventing sports injuries/allowing injuries to heal completely before playing again  Protecting against Lyme Disease

22 Rheumatoid Arthritis  Characterized by the destruction of the joints due to inflammation.  Affects 2.5 million people nationwide  Most common in women;  Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 20 and 50  Can affect young children (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis)  Caused by an autoimmune disease – no cure!

23 Symptoms and Treatment  Symptoms  Joint pain  Inflammation  Swelling  Stiffness  Joint deformity  Loss of normal function  Medications  Relieve pain, reduce inflammation and swelling, and stiffness  Exercise  Rest  Joint Protection  Physical and Occupational therapy

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