Presentation on theme: "Noninfectious Diseases Diseases not caused by pathogens and that are not spread from person to person."— Presentation transcript:
Noninfectious Diseases Diseases not caused by pathogens and that are not spread from person to person
Chronic Disease Disease that lasts a long time Some can be cured but many can not Some infectious diseases are chronic (for example Lyme disease, which can affect the body for years) Many noninfectious diseases are chronic: –Diabetes, allergies, asthma, cancer and heart disease
Allergies An overly strong reaction of the immune system to a foreign substance People have allergic reactions to various things such as cosmetics, shellfish, berries, nuts and insect stings and bites An Allergen is a substance that causes an allergic reaction. –Some chemicals, certain foods, pollen, molds, some antibiotics, pet dander and dust can be allergens –Reactions include stuffy nose, watery eyes, breathing difficulties Asthma is associated with reactions to allergens –Sufferers have shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing Antihistamines are medications that can help treat allergic reactions and asthma
Diabetes A chronic disease associated with the levels of insulin produced by the pancreas Insulin is a hormone that enables glucose to pass from the bloodstream to cells Two types: Type 1 and Type 2 –Type 1: too little or no insulin production Must monitor sugar intake and usually require insulin injections –Type 2: the body cannot process insulin Usually just monitor diet and weight Higher instance in overweight patients and it might be inherited Symptoms: fatigue, thirst, frequent urination, tingling in hands and feet Long term high glucose levels can cause blurred vision, kidney problems, heart attack, stroke, loss of feeling in feet and loss of consciousness (diabetic coma)
Chemicals and Disease Chemicals that are harmful to living things are called toxins. Toxins can cause birth defects, cell mutations, cancers, tissue damage, chronic diseases and death. The level of toxin taken in affects the severity of the effect. Examples: asbestos, lead, ethyl alcohol Toxins enter the environment through many processes such as farming and manufacturing and can lead to chronic disease in humans who are exposed long term.
Cancer Cancer has been with humans for thousands of years. Cancer is the name given to a closely related group of diseases that result from uncontrolled cell growth. If control of cell division is disrupted, abnormal growth can occur and a tumor can form. Cancerous cells can leave a tumor and spread via blood and lymph vessels and spread to other parts of the body.
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Uncontrolled growth. Cells do not function as part of the body. Cells take up space and interfere with normal body functions. Cells can travel throughout the body. The cells produce tumors and abnormal growths anywhere in the body.
Types of Cancer Leukemia: –Cancerous WBC are immature an not effective fighting disease. –Cancer cells multiply in bone marrow and crowd out RBC, WBC and platelets. Lung Cancer –Starts in the bronchi and spreads –Surface area is for oxygen exchange is reduced affecting breathing –Leading cause of Cancer deaths for males in the US
Types of Cancer cont. Colorectal Cancer –Forms in the large intestine and is a leading cause of death among men and women. Breast Cancer –Tumors grow in the breast –High degree of successful treatment with early detection Prostate Cancer –Very common in men –Forms in the prostate gland which is an organ that surrounds the urethra
Causes of Cancer Some genes have been linked to Cancer Smoking! Exposure to some chemicals can cause Cancer: they are called carcinogens –Asbestos, heavy metals, alcohol etc… Radiation (X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, nuclear radiation) Some foods and food additives
Cancer Treatment Surgery-physically removing cancerous tissue Radiation-using X-rays to kill cancer cells Chemotherapy-using chemicals to destroy cancer cells Immunology-new approach focused on the immune processes of the body. –Specialized antibodies are being developed to deliver medical treatments directly to cancer cells
Cancer Prevention Watch for early warning signs Positive lifestyle choices: –Avoid tobacco products –Healthy diet (avoid fats, salts and sugars) –Using sunscreen and limiting sun exposure –Careful handling of chemicals –Avoid pollutants